South Urals Federal Research Center of Mineralogy and Geoecology of the Urals Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences

minerals, first discovered in ilmenite

A Short History of mineralogical study Ilmeny

Between the end of XVIII-th until the end of the XIX-th century in the southern part Ilmeny been intensive work on the search of mica (muscovite). The first published information about the Ilmen mountains we find in 1786 g. u P. WITH. Pallas (Pallas. 1786), where he mentions "mica mine at Chebarkul ', as well as the lake "Ilmen" and towering beside him "Ilmentau". It is also reported the discovery of green feldspar (Hermann B., 1789) and Serle (Severn, 1809).

The beginning of the study of minerals Ilmeny should consider visiting their summer 1826 g. German mineralogist, collector and explorer Johannes Menge. He described here 13 minerals, including zircon, nepheline, topaz, beryl (Money, 1826; 1827; 1830; amount, 1842). He first drew attention to the special composition of the main rock, component of the Ilmen ridge, proposing to allocate it in a special type - Ilmensky granite (miaskite). samples, broadcasting and. Menge to explore the renowned scholar of the time, new minerals were discovered: ilmenite (Rose D., 1827; Roze G, 1839), monatsit-(This)(Breytgaupt, 1829), eshinit-(This) (Berzelius, 1828).

AT 1829 Ilmeny year visiting the famous mineralogist Gustav Rose, He worked in the expedition of the Academy of Sciences A. Humboldt. cancrinite - In samples of his collection, a new mineral was discovered (Roze G., 1839).

Exploration and development of gem corundum and led the development of mining operations in the Ilmen mountains, reveals new pegmatite veins, stone material continues to flow to researchers. Open new minerals: chevkinit-(This) (Roze G., 1839), samarskit-(Y)(Roze H., 1847), khiolit (R. H. Auerbach J., 1846).

The second half of the XIX century begins the discovery of new mineral - ilmenorutile, found and studied Russian scientist, mineralogist and crystallographer H. AND. Koksharov (1856), P. AT. Eremeev described helvite first in Russia (Eremeev, 1868).

Generally, in the XIX century, various researchers made a significant contribution to the study of mineralogy Ilmeny, balo discovered and described 46 minerals, in t. no. 8 - new.

At the beginning of the XX century Ilmeny visit and study famous Russian Geology and Mineralogy: BUT. P. Karpinski (described pyroxene), BUT. E. Fersman (Mesolithic, natrolite), BUT. WITH. Belyankin (amphibole, pyroxene, talc, spinel et al.), AT. AND. Vernadsky (iksiolit), AT. AND. Kryzhanovsky (povellit, thorite et al.). Foreign mineralogists been described: eshinit-(Y) (Hauser et al., 1910); gearksutit, kriolitionit, tomsenolit (Boggild, 1913).

1911-1916 gg. - works Radium expedition Academy of Sciences under the guidance of. AND. Vernadsky.

WITH 1920-1950 gg. on the territory of Ilmen Reserve worked our scientists: E. AT. Aralovets, M. WITH. Afanasiev, D. P. Barsanov, D. WITH. Belyankin, B. BUT. Berezin, BUT. n. Zavaritskii, BUT. BUT. Ivanov, P. AT. Kalinin, BUT. BUT. Kozakov, AT. AND. Kryzhanovsky, WITH. D. priest's, TO. AND. there, R. B. ruble, M. P. Rusakov, BUT. BUT. Sauk, n. n. Smirnov (He described 18 minerals), BUT. AND. Simonov, BUT. D. Titov, D. P. Blueberries, etc..

AT 1949 g. monograph "Minerals Ilmen Reserve" under the editorship of acad. BUT. n. Zavaritskii, which describes 122 minerals.

Among the scholars of the second half of the XX century, uzuchavshih Ilmen minerals, it should be noted these researchers, And how. n. Labuncov (anatase, Garnet), L. E. Rothman (summarizes the work of pyroxene and amphibole), P. I. Jarosz (bastnesite), AND. E. Maltsev (the first in the Urals triple), AT. AND. Stepanov (three ftoralûminata of kopi 69), B. BUT. Makarochkin (8 minerals, in t. no. one new - fergusonite-beta-(This)), AT. I. Levin (by Ilmeny Geology Monograph, which describes 5 New for IGZ minerals).)

Beginning with 1975 g. Mineralogical investigations involved the staff of the reserve and the Institute of Mineralogy: AT. ABOUT. Poles (He described 40 minerals, in t. no. new - Makarochkin), B. AT. Chesnokov (22 mineral, in t. no. New - Svyazhina, Ushkova), AT. BUT. priest's (14 minerals), in t. no. new - polyakovit-(This)), BUT. D. Bazhenov (14 minerals, in t. no. New - ftororihterit, kaliysadanagait, ftoromagnezioarfvedsonit), E. AT. Belogub (work polytypism mica), BUT. WITH. Varlakov (work on the mineralogy of ultramafic Ilmeny). AT 1994 It was published the most complete inventory Ilmeny, including 264 mineral species. AT 1994 inventory minerals Ilmeny year published, including 264 mineral species (Yu.S.Kobyashev, IN. Poles, 1994) . AT 1998-99 gg. mineralogical group Preserve audited all of the data on amphibole Ilmenogorsky complex, found 36 minerals of this group, in t. no. – 18 New for Ilmeny (SN. Nikandrov et al., 2000).

AT 2000 g. published inventory minerals Ilmeny, naschitavayuschy 268 mineral species and 94 species (YS. Kobyashev, SN. Nikandrov, P.M.Valyzer, 2000).

amphiboles

The first finds of natural

Classification of the amphibole group of minerals in Mineralogy traditionally difficult. This is due both to the complexity of their composition, and with the complexity of the structure, wherein the same cations can be placed in different positions. All this together creates a fairly large number of combinatorial, which is difficult to organize. most logical, apparently, It is the classification, compiled in 1978 year Likom [40] and approved by the International Mineralogical Association. In this classification quite harmoniously systematized minerals amphibole group based on their crystal chemistry, as well as rules designed amphibole referring to a particular type of mineral. In addition there are some amphibole, derived theoretically (given the composition and names), ie. this amphibole, which exist in nature may, but so far they have not found. It should be noted, what in 1997 year there is another amphibole classification, also created the Face [20]. It is based on the classification of 1978 year and simplifies it, but in general it is quite comparable with.

History of discovery

By the early 80-ies of researchers has accumulated a wealth of information on amphibole Ilmeny. And 1982 was an attempt to organize it in accordance with the classification of Lika [2]. It turned out, that part of the Ilmen amphibole corresponds theoretically derived Face, that served as the basis for their inclusion in the list of new minerals, open to the ilmenite [15], with notice “the first natural finds”.

It follows amphibole:

  • ferribarruazit NaCa(Mg,Fe2+)3Fe3+2(And7,Al)THE22(OH)2
  • ferrivinchit NaCaMg4Fe3+And8THE22(OH)2
  • ferrytaramyt Na2That(Fe2+,Mg)3Fe3+2(And6,Al2)THE22(OH)2

Bred and named these minerals by similarity to, respectively, have- ruazitom, vinchitom and taramitom.

Nomenclature mineral

for barruazita, vinchita and taramita predominate trivalent cation Al in position. The same varieties of glandular, in particular – ilmenskih (ferribarruazit, ferrivinchit and ferritaramit), It prevails in the gap Fe3+. Later, compared with [2], analysis of the literature showed, that amphibole composition ferritaramita has been previously described, but called packingWe.

mineral associations

New Ilmen amphiboles described as forming minerals of different breeds: ferribarruazit – in fenites albite;
ferrivinchit – in quartz veins fenites; ferritaramit – in miaskites
amphibole, syenites and fenites amphibole and biotite-amphibole.

mineral Characteristics

Structure amfybolov (rihterit, by [23])

Since the standard description of these minerals, as a mineral species, at [2] absent, then here it is not given. We note only, they are all in mineralogy is a Class silicates, AS for classification. cookery [21]: subclass – chain, subdivision – with additional anions or radicals, Group – amphibole. All belong to the monoclinic system, have the form of symmetry C2 / m. The structure of the type common to this group of minerals (cm. ftorrihterit, (rice. 1)). The appearance of minerals: ferrivinchit (Fig.2), ferritaramit (Figure 3).

Fig.1
M(1) – M(3): Mg, Mn, Fe2 +, Fe3 +, Al, Ti
M(4): That, Na, and Li, Mg, Mn, Fe2 +
T(1) and T(2): And, Al
A: Na.

Fig.2. Ferrivinchit.
Asbestos unit on feldspar breccias. Moose. Countdown. №6812.

Figure 3. Ferritaramit.
Imperfect crystals on recrystallized Miass. Moose. Countdown. №7415.

Vertushkovit (vertushkovite)

K2 (C2THE4). H2THE

History of discovery

In March 1983 g. BV. Chesnokov researcher at the Museum of Local Lore g. Miass VI. Popov pieces of fungus were transferred (Jnonotus obliguus) with birch (Betula pendula) with fine-grained precipitates unknown mineral. Researches show, it is unknown in nature (synthetic known) potassium oxide monohydrate, ie. new mineral. Mineral name given in honor of the outstanding Soviet mineralogist, Honored Geologist of the USSR, USSR State Prize winner, Head of the Department of Mineralogy of the Sverdlovsk Mining Institute, Professor N. Gregory Vertushkova. similar mineral, tozhe on a growths berёze, studied EI. Nefedov. Incomplete description his professor included VP. Petrov in the Russian translation of the book E. Larsen and G. Berman [18] entitled “oxalate – potassium monohydrate”. Vertushkovit Commission on New Minerals International Mineralogical Association (KNM PAC) It is not approved as a new mineral. This is due to the fact, that exists among mineralogists double relation to the products of vital activity of organisms, What is and is vertushkovit. According to one concept, supported by MMA, to minerals include only those products, which have arisen in the earth's crust as a result of endogenous and exogenous geological processes, without technical or other human activities or livelihoods of different organisms. From this position vertush- kovit mineral is not. Another part of the mineralogists logically considers, to minerals that may include any of the compounds, resulting from natural processes, including the processes of vital activity of organisms. However, they believe, that science itself “mineralogy” In this case, structured and it appears the sections or areas, within which to explore the- organisms are waste products – ʙiomineralogija, or products, spontaneously occurring due to natural factor- tori in objects, organized person (dumps of mining and processing enterprises, wells, sumps etc.) – Mineralogy technogenesis. From this point of view vertushkovit – mineral section biomineralogy.

Nomenclature mineral

Vertushkovit as a mineral species
In mineralogy vertushkovit system referenced to the class of organic compounds (or “organic substances”), subclass – salts of organic acids, Group – oksalatы. The crystals belong to the monoclinic system, kind of symmetry A2 / a.

crystal structure

For Ilmensky vertushkovita has not been studied.

morphology

form finding
Whitish efflorescences on the buildup of fungus and fine-grained surface, fine-grained clusters within the fungus in areas of delamination and
rastreskivaniя (ris1.). These clusters are friable porous aggregates plate crystals, having a diamond shape. The leading form is a{100} and three forms established in the form of narrow faces (Fig.2). Marked counterparts on a{111}, stretched on [011].

Fig.1 Vertushkovit.
Very small crystals in the form of a white crust on the surface of the birch black fungus (Jnonotus obliguus). Moose. Countdown. №4527.

Fig.2. crystal vertushkovita.
Facets of forms: a{100}, The{111}

The main physical characteristics

Density: measured – 2,13 g / cm3; calculated – 2,14 g / cm3.
Hardness: on a ten Mohs about 2,5.
izlom: by melkorakovistogo to uneven, very fragile. Cleavage of clear {100}.
Color: from colorless to pale brown and reddish-brown.
feature: white with a faint yellowish-brown tint.
shine: glass, of presentations zhirnovatыy.
transparent: in transmitted light the colorless or pale-brown.
biaxial, positive. 2V – big. Nm=[010], angle with:Of 7 ~The . A = 1.557; Nm=1,491; Np = 1.432; Ng-Np = 0.125.
additional characteristics: It dissolves readily in water, legkoplavok, bright colors the flame in bright purple (potassium).

Peculiarities of chemical composition

Theoretically K2C2THE4.H2THE (wt.%): K2THE – 51,13; C2THE2 – 39,10; H2THE – 9,77. For vertushkovita defined, respectively: 49,40; 40,43; 7,78; sum 99,61. Small deficit K2O explained by a small admixture of the organic substance in the sample.

ilmenite (ilmenite)

Fe2+TiO3

History of discovery

Ilmenite is set fees I.N. Money 1824 of the year. These materials present shiny black crystals, which I.N. Menge considered tantalite. They were handed over to them for the study- Niya several mineralogists: J.. D. Geylandu, AF. Kupfer and others. Based on measurements of the angles between the faces of the crystals Kupfer took them to the monoclinic crystal system and named “ilmenite” [38]. Gustav Roze, to obtain crystals of the “tantalïta” by Weiss and also measure their, found similarities with crystals, studied Kupfer, but took them to the trigonal system, while pointing, which is probably due to the distorted shape of the crystals, they were installed incorrectly Kupfer [42]. here, on the basis of chemical analysis, conducted by Henry Rose, he said, that this is a titaniferous mineral iron. Thus turned, that the name of the mineral gave AF. Kupffer, and correctly identified it (composition and symmetry) – Gustav Roze. It should be noted, that from the sands in Mennakane (Kornoul, England) nearly a quarter of a century before the opening of ilmenite McGregor described similar mineral called “menakkanit” [15] with reference to [41]. However, he was not examined and approved in the name of the nomenclature of minerals “ilmenite”.

Nomenclature mineral

Ilmenite as a mineral species
In mineralogy ilmenite system belongs to the class oxides; AS for classification. cookery [21]: subclass – coordination, the Department – complex, ilmenite group. It crystallizes in the trigonal system, type symmetry R3. The mineral is widespread in nature, It is currently the main source of titanium.

crystal structure

crystal structure ilmenite has the same type, as corundum: oxygen atoms form a hexagonal close packing, in octahedral interstices its situated metal atoms (Fe and Ti), but not all, but only in 2/3 (the so-called “korundovomu motif”), the remaining voids (1/3) – vacant. Fe and Ti in the structure are not distributed uniformly (statistical), and layers: THE – Ti – THE – Fe – THE – Ti and t.d. [8], whereby symmetry is lowered ilmenite, compared with corundum (R3 and R3c respectively.

Structuring ilmenite (by [11])

1 – Two types of octahedral structure (Fe and Ti); 2 – also, the individual layers; 3 – motif in the layer structure, perpendicular to the axis c.

The distribution of Fe and Ti atoms in the ilmenite structure (by [8])

The projection onto the plane (2110).

morphology

form finding
Dense granular clusters, often tabular grains, plate. lamellar crystals, tabular to equant (rice. 1). The limitation set (rice. 2): the usual forms of – 16, rare and unreliable – more 30. Known counterparts on (0001) and (1011), and polysynthetic along the same lines.

Fig.1. ilmenite
crystals. Muz.obr. (from left to right) №5080 and №4502.

Fig.2. The crystals of ilmenite
Facets of forms: c{0001}, r{1011}, s{0221}, e{0112}, n`{2243}, `n{2423}

The main physical characteristics

Specific gravity: 4,6 – 4,8 g / cm3.
Hardness: on a ten Mohs – 5-6;
mikrotvërdostʹ (According to various sources) by ~ 500 to 825 kg / mm2.
izlom: uneven to conchoidal, Cleavage is not expressed, sometimes it marked separately (0001) and (1011), as a consequence of polysynthetic twinning.
Color: iron-black, sometimes with a brownish or steel-gray tint.
feature: black, sometimes brownish.
shine: polumetallicheskiy to metalicheskogo.
magnetically: nonmagnetic or slabomagniten.
optical behavior [12]: opaque, in a very thin breaks slightly translucent brownish-red. The reflected light (in polished sections) light gray, moderately low reflection (higher than that of magnetite, but lower than that of hematite).

Peculiarities of chemical composition.

A theoretical structure of pure ilmenite (vetting3): Ugly – 47,34 wt.%; Ugly2– 52,66 wt.%. But this structure is unstable. Typically there Fe2THE3, sometimes in fairly large quantities; and Mg – so-called picroilmenite, и Mn2+ – manganilymenit.
Of the other impurities were observed: Nb – in ilmenite from alkali sawmills; V, Cr, Co, Ni – a major rock ilmenites; and Sc, Zn, Sn, Ba, Sr, Y, Th.

İlmenorutil (ilmenorutile)

(TiNbFe3+)3THE2

History of discovery

Ilmenorutile installed NI. Koksharov in the material, mined in the summer 1856 the year when the bulkhead dumps fenakitovyh and topaz mines (Typical minerals amazonite pegmatites), as well as pits, passed near these mines. Based on the analysis, conducted by P. German, and measuring NI crystals. Koksharov considered it a new species, this mineral rutile and named it “ilmenorutil”, tk. It differed from other Rutilov high specific gravity and “his peculiar appearance”, as well as a high content of iron [16]. Subsequently, his analysis was published P. German (at 1868 city) and it turned out to be 19% pyatiokisi niobium, Tantalum is not detected. Later, in other fields, Tantalum was discovered in ilmenorutile, in some cases it was more, than niobium, and a mineral called stryuverit.

Nomenclature mineral

Ilmenorutile as a mineral species
In mineralogy system ilmenorutile relates to a class of oxides, AS for classification. cookery [21]: subclass – chain, the Department – simple. Mineral refers to the tetragonal system, type symmetry P42/mmm.

crystal structure

crystal structure
The crystal structure similar to rutile ilmenorutile (rice). The main element of the structure is a polyhedron TiO6 (each Ti atom surrounded by six oxygen atoms, and each oxygen atom is surrounded by three atoms of Ti). Slightly distorted polyhedrons connecting together the opposed edges form a column (chain), oriented along the c axis. The columns are connected between the vertices of polyhedra. In the structure ilmenorutile Ti in part on polyhedra substituted by Nb, Would и Fe, which are distributed in the amount of statistically.

Structural rutile type TiO2 (by [21])

The rutile all octahedra occupied by Ti, ilmenorutile – part positions occupied Ti Nb (Ta) and Fe.

morphology

form finding
a rare mineral, found, usually, as crystals, aggregates of crystals and their fragments (Fig.1). The main forms are in faceted tetragonal dipyramid s{111} and e{101}, and a tetragonal prism{100} and m{110} (the spherical coordinates of the faces are the same, like rutile) (Fig.2). Over ten other known forms of, which are less common. counterpart in (101) common, And frequent tees and even chetverniki; more rare for twins (301).

Fig.1. İlmenorutil
Kristall to the United Amazonit. Moose. Countdown. №7524.
Fig.2. crystals (1,2) and twins (3-6) ilmenorutila
Facets of forms:
c{001}, a{100}, m{110}, s{111}, e{101}, p{221}.

The main physical characteristics

Specific gravity: 4,2 – 5,6 g / cm3, strongly depends on the Nb content, and,
special, Ta.
Hardness: on a ten Mohs 6 – 6,5.
izlom: Uneven, Cleavage is not installed.
Color: the black, to gray, sometimes bluish surface discolouration.
feature: black, gray-black with greenish tint.
shine:faces – strong, metal; in a break – fatty.
opaque: sometimes slightly translucent in thin breaks at the edges.

Peculiarities of chemical composition

Composition of the main components (Ti, Nb, Fe) very unstable and varies widely: TiO2 ~ 36-88 wt.%; Nb2THE5 ~ 3,6- -4,2 wt.%; FeO ~ 4-13 wt.%. Among other impurity elements occurred Mn2+, replacing Fe2+ (to 15 wt.%), Mg, That, Sn (especially stryuveritah), V, Cr etc..

Kalugin (kaluginite)

(Mn2+,That)MgFe2+(PO4)2(OH) . 4H2THE

History of discovery

Kalugin found BV. Chesnokov in 1979 year in the vein of granite pegmatite mines number 232 Ilmen reserve. Kalugin, along with other phosphates is a part triplita modify products, forming a slot near the quartz core nucleus. It also found Ushkova and Matveeva. Named in honor of the Ural mineralogist, compiler of educational and scientific collections of minerals Kalugin Aleksandr Vasilyevich. Commission on New Minerals International Mineralogical Association Kalugin was not considered (not appeared to).

Nomenclature mineral

Kalugin as a mineral species
In mineralogy, Kalugin system belongs to the class phosphates, by [33] – overita group (by [21]: subclass – island, the Department – water with additional anions). Mineral refers to the orthorhombic system, space group Ccca.

crystal structure

I have not been studied. By [33] considered Mn-analog segelerita.

morphology

form finding
size crystals before 0,5 – 1 mm on the walls of the cavities in an altered triple, together with the crystals ushkovita. The crystals have tabular shape, flattened by {100} and several extended by [001] (Fig.). Total installed 6 forms. At relatively large crystals verge pinacoids {100} and {010} slightly concave, and bipryamids – slightly convex. The immersion preparations observed polysynthetic twins.

Fig.1. crystals kaluginita
Facets of forms: c{001}, b{010}, a{100}, f{130}, p{111}, s{211}

The main physical characteristics

Density: measured – 2,69 g / cm3, calculated – 2,7 g / cm3.
Hardness: on a ten Mohs 3,5; fragile.
izlom: uneven. Cleavage is perfect for {110}.
Color: light yellow-green to greenish-yellow.
feature: white with a yellowish tinge.
shine: strong glass on the sides, zhirnovatыy of presentations.
Transparent or prosvechivaet. The transmitted light pleochroic: udli-
positive nenie, of – greenish-yellow, и nP – nearly colorless.
A = 1.658; Nm=1,642; Np = 1.627; Ng-Np = 0.031. biaxial, negative
(?); 2Close to V 90The.
additional characteristics: fusible.

Peculiarities of chemical composition

According to various analyzes as part kaluginita, except definable elements in minor amounts set Al and Ti.

cancrinite (cancrinite)

Na6That2Al6And6THE24(CO3)2

History of discovery

First Name "cancrinite" was given to Mr.. Kemmerer [14] mineral "somewhat light purple, partly dark blue ", established in materials (fees) I.N.Menge. However, it soon became clear- Moose, it is similar to the sodalite with Vesuvius. AT 1829 year Ilmen Mountains visits Gustav Rose and in the materials describes the pink mineral, having, he noted, many similarities with nepheline and soda- cast [24]. Since "cancrinite" was discredited, he proposed to call this new mineral pink cancrinite, to keep this name in mineralogy [43].

Nomenclature mineral

Cancrinite as a mineral species
In mineralogy system cancrinite belongs to a class of silicates; AS for classification. cookery [21]: subclass – wireframe, the Department – aluminum silicates, subdivision – with additional anions. Group cancrinite. Mineral refers to the hexagonal system, type symmetry P6 / mmm.

crystal structure

It can be represented as follows:: Al- and Si-tetrahedrons, connecting vertices, form hexagonal rings in the plane c(0001), and these rings, connecting six, create large hexagonal cavity, in which atoms are arranged Na, Ca and other, and extra atoms and radicals (CO3, SO4, OH and so forth.)-(Fig.1).

Fig.1. Structure kankrynyta (by [9])
The projection onto the plane (001).

morphology

form finding
granular selection, anhedral separate blocks, pseudomorphs and kaomki ​​of nepheline (Fig.1). The crystals are rare, prizmaticheskogo gabitusa (Fig.2), the usual forms of: dipiramida {1011} and prism {1010}

Fig.1. cancrinite. Imperfect crystals yellow (the illustration with whitish bloom). Moose. Countdown. №6120.

Fig.2. crystal cancrinite. Facets of forms: a{1010}, r{1011}

The main physical characteristics

Specific gravity: 2,4 – 2,5 g / cm3.
Hardness: on a ten Mohs 5 – 5,5.
izlom: uneven, sometimes step. cleavage of {1010}
Medium to perfect.
Color: white, Gray, yellow, pink.
feature: colorless.
shine: on the cleavage plane – glass, sometimes pearlescent, on
izlom – fatty.
optical behavior: in joint transparent, colorless; optical
single-axis, negative, negative elongation. the refractive index nThe~1,524, ne~1,495 ( for red light ).
high birefringence, order 0,021 – 0,029.

Peculiarities of chemical composition

Besides the basic elements of formular (cm. formula), as isomorphous impurity comprises K, sometimes Ba, H2O (the last character is a zeolite) etc.

Makarochkin (makarochkinite)

(That,Na)2(Fe2+,Fe3+,Ti4+,Mg)6(And,Be,Al)6THE20

History of discovery

The mineral was first recorded in the collection of samples BA. Makarochkin as an accessory and previously diagnosed as spinel. Further his studies in samples, selected from pegmatite vein imaging № 400 Ilmen reserve, allowed to install, that this new mineral, calcium berrilosilikat, sodium, gland, titanium, magnesium. Named for Boris Alexandrovich Makarochkin, geologist – mineralogist, I worked for many years in the Ilmen Reserve.

Nomenclature mineral

Makarochkin as a mineral species
In mineralogy system Makarochkin belongs to a class of silicates, subclass – chain, aenigmatite group (by [22]). Mineral refers to the triclinic crystal system, space group P1.

crystal structure

crystal structure
For proper makarochkinita has not been studied, but it is known and is described for aenigmatite (by [34]) in the following way. The structure consists of two kinds of two-dimensional layers, they are parallel (100) and alternate in a direction of the axis. One layer is formed FeO6– and TiO6-tetrahedra and distorted antiprism Na (Fig.1), and the second layer is formed piroksenopodobnymi chain [And6THE18], connected by FeO6-octahedra. In these piroksenopodobnyh chains for every four SiO4-tetrahedron have two additional SiO4-tyetraedra, who have shared vertices with two neighboring tetrahedra chain.

rice. 1. Struktura enigmatita (by [34])

morphology

form finding
Makarochkin forms a single crystal isolation, in form similar to the isometric, in the feldspar. The sizes of these discharges reach 50 mm. Sometimes seen one or two rough verge.

The main physical characteristics

Density: measured – 3,87 g / cm3, calculated – 3,88 g / cm3.
Hardness: on a ten Mohs – 5,5-6; fragile.
izlom: conchoidal, cleavage of flawed {110}.
Color: the black, in thin breaks on the edges of translucent green.
feature: greenish-black.
shine: glass.
optical behavior: shines, Transmitted light (in immersion preparations) It has green color, weakly pleochroic, in crossed Nicols is not extinguished, and changes color from green to red-brown. optically biaxial; Of 1,860 =, Np = 1.799.

Peculiarities of chemical composition

Besides the basic elements of formular: (That, Na, Fe, Ti, Mg, And, Be, Al) in minor amounts set K (referenced to the position of Ca – Na) и Mn (referenced to the position Fe – Ti – Mg). An empirical formula is as follows::

(That2,09Na0,36K0,03)2,5 (Fe2+3,29Fe3+1,22 Ti0,66Mn0,08Mg0,3)5,55 THE2[(And4,39Be0,81Al0,61) 5,81THE18].

Matveeva (matveevite)

(K,H3THE)Ti(Mn2+,Mg)2(Fe3+,Al)2(PO4)(OH)3 . 15H2THE

History of discovery

Matveeva found BV. Chesnokov in 1979 year in the vein of granite pegmatite mines number 232 Ilmen reserve. Matveeva, along with other phosphates, part of the product changes triplita, forming a slot near the quartz core nucleus. It also established Ushkova and Kalugin. Named in honor of Professor Sverdlovsk Mining Institute, famous Soviet mineralogist, founder of the Ural Mineralogical School Matveev Konstantin Konstantinovich. Commission on New Minerals International Matveeva association was not considered (not appeared to).

Nomenclature mineral

Matveeva as a mineral species
In mineralogy Matveeva system belongs to the class phosphates, by [33] – polkerrita group. Mineral refers to the orthorhombic system, space group Pnam or Pna21.

crystal structure

has not been studied.

morphology

form finding
small, to 0,1-0,2 mm, crystals, vkraplonnye in manganese hydroxides. crystal habitus or isometric tolstotablitchaty (rice 1.), verge smooth, but slightly shiny. The faceted found three forms of. At equal their development crystals have the appearance of “rhombic dodecahedron”.

Fig.1. Tabular crystals matveevita (1) and izometrichnogo (2) appearance. Facets of forms: b{010}, a{100}, p{111}

The main physical characteristics

Density: measured – 2,32 g / cm3, calculated – 2,40 g / cm3.
Hardness: on a ten Mohs 2,5; fragile.
izlom: uneven, Cleavage is perfect for {010}.
Color: white or nearly colorless, sometimes yellowish.
feature: white.
shine: glass, on the cleavage plane pearl effect.
Transparent or prosvechivaet. In transmitted light, biaxial, make-
tion, small angle 2V (calculated = 44about). A = 1.618; Nm=1,580;
Np = 1.574; Ng-Np = 0.044. The orientation of the optical axes: of =[001];
Nm=[100]; Np =[010].
additional characteristics: fusible.

Peculiarities of chemical composition

According to various analyzes as part matveevita installed all the formulaic elements. The characteristic is constant and pronounced K deficiency in the first position (less 0,5 formula units), that the calculation is compensated by the introduction of an alleged oxonium – H3O.

monazite (monazite)

(This,The)PO4

History of discovery

Monazite was found I.N. Money, but received them for zircon. This “zircon” he transferred to study G. Rose and A. Breythauptu. Last I defined it as a new mineral [6] and he called monazite: from the Greek – “stand alone”. According to one version – uncommon for, on the other – for it, that he initially met only in single crystals. later Brooks [7] He described it as “mengit”, but the name did not catch. Finally mineral entered the range of the work of Mr.. pink [43], entitled, According to him antimonnickel, As described his first.

Nomenclature mineral

Monazite as a mineral species
In mineralogy, monazite system belongs to the class phosphates, AS for classification. cookery [21]: subclass – island, the Department – without water and additional anions, subdivision – simple. Mineral refers to the monoclinic crystal system, kind of symmetry P21/n.

crystal structure

In general, the monazite structure can be represented as follows:. Ce atoms are in a coordination 9, at the same time tying six PO4-tetrahedra (rice. 1.): tetrahedra in the three Ce atom is bonded to two oxygen atoms (in the direction of c axis), forming chains along the axis c; in three more tetrahedra Ce associated with a single oxygen atom (across the axis c), linking chain between a.

Fig.1.

morphology

form finding
The mineral is relatively rare, but sometimes it accumulates in significant quantities in placers. It occurs in the form of crystals (Fig.1), sometimes granular clusters and earthy aggregates . As described in more faceted twenty forms, for Ilmensky monazite in [26] is 12 (Fig.2). Doubles are known: by {100} and {001}.

 
 

Fig.1. The splice-corundum crystals feldspar pegmatite. Moose. Countdown.

Fig.2. individual crystals. Moose. Countdown. №5828 and №6057.

The main physical characteristics [26,10]


Specific gravity: 4,6-5,4 g / cm3, predominantly 5,0-5,2; increases
with an increase in the content of Th.
Hardness: on a ten Mohs 5-5,5.
izlom: conchoidal to uneven. Hrupok. Cleavage: perfect for {100}, by imperfect {010}, sometimes quite imperfect by {110}, {101} and {011}. Sometimes there is a distinct separately {001}, rarely {111}.
Color: yellowish-brown, reddish-brown, yellowish.
feature: colorless (white) or slightly yellowish.
shine: volatile – resinous, wax, close to the glass, to diamond.
shine through: in colorless transparent sections with very high relief.
Interference color bright. of ~ 1,835; ~ e.g. 1,792. biaxial,
positive, 2V ~ 13The.

Peculiarities of chemical composition

Currently mineralogy system by the prevalence of a rare earth element allocated three independent mineral species: monatsit-(This), monatsit-(The) and monatsit-(Nd). Known Ilmen monazite are meant monatsit-(This). known tests, wherein the content of La, I correct in the amount of a Di, very close to the content of Ce (Analysis №1 in [26]), and even a little higher than its (№5 in the analysis [26]). Of the other elements is common Th (in Ilmen ThO2 content comes to 25 wt.%).

Samarskit-(Y) (samarskite-(Y))

(Y,This,The)(Fe2+,Fe3+)(Nb,Ta,Ti) 2THE8

History of discovery

For the first time mineral called “uranotantal” Gustav Rose has been described in the material, he had received from the PI. Evreinova (by [4]). Further studies of the composition of the mineral, conducted by Henry Rose (brother Gustave Roze) on the material, obtained by VE. Samara (again on [4]), show, that this is not the mineral tantalum, and he is a niobate of uranium and other elements. ie. logically it must be named “uranoniobatom”, but not “uranotantalom”. but the term “niobate” at that time it has already been used (subsequently discredited), so Heinrich Rose suggested name for this mineral “samarskite”, in honor of the Chief of Staff of the Corps of Mining Engineers VE. Samara.

Nomenclature mineral

The Samara as a mineral species
In mineralogy system samarskite relates to a class of oxides, AS for classification. cookery [21]: subclass – chain, the Department – complex, group wolframite, columbite. Natural samarskite rentgenamorfen, after calcination shows monoclinic, psevdorombicheskuyu structure, external crystal faceting similar to columbite (rhombic). View symmetry, according to the latest data, P21/c.

crystal structure

The crystal structure of the calcined samarskite quite complicated and more or less thoroughly studied relatively recently [Am.Min., 1993]. in general terms it is similar to the structure of columbite and wolframite (Fig.1). If the formula is seen as wolframite ABO4 (where A – Mn or Fe, B – W), samarskite the formula is discussed in a A2B2O8 (ie. as it were doubled), wherein A at position elements are divided into two groups, A conventionally A` and, where A – Y, This, The; A` – Fe2 +, Fe3 +; B – Nb, Ta, Ti. In other words, Fe2 + and Fe3 + in a separate group, settling nevertheless at position A. In general, columbite and wolframite structure is described as follows:: zigzag chains consist of several distorted octahedra AO6 and BO6, interconnected by common edges, wherein the chains consist of only one type of octahedra. These chains are oriented parallel to the axis. Rows chains of one type of form layers (A-layers and B layers). Within a layer the chain are not connected to each other, but connected to the chains adjacent layer – vertices of the octahedra.

morphology

form finding
a rare mineral, It occurs as rounded, slightly elongated grains or crystals, usually imperfect (Fig.1). The surface is usually covered with a reddish-brown crust changes products. Total (around the world) faceted crystals found in 12 forms, in Ilmen samarskite – substantially less. Crystal habit is short-and close to the tabular (by {100}). Doubles are not observed, but characterized by targeted fusion with columbite (Fig.2), There were also a fusion of ilmenite, fergusonite, monazite.

Fig.1. Crystal corundum-feldspar pegmatite. Moose. Countdown. №7379.

Fig.2. Chipped feldspar crystals in (visible high gloss). Moose. Countdown. №6506.

Crystal in feldspar. Moose. Countdown. №6707.

The main physical characteristics

Specific gravity (by [4]): from 5,31 to 6,04 g / cm3, is one definition 5,037. The specific weight is strongly dependent on the composition of, mainly – from U content.
Hardness: on a ten Mohs 5,5-6; microhardness according to various sources 612-897 kg / mm2.
izlom: melkorakovisty, cleavage in Ilmensky samarskite invisible, samarskite in other fields sometimes fixed for {100} as a very imperfect.
Color: pitch-black, velvety-black.
feature: reddish-brown to brown.
shine: strong on the break glass, smolyanistыy to polumetalicheskogo.
opaque: sometimes slightly translucent reddish-brown color in thin breaks at the edges. The transmitted light (in thin sections) reddish-brown, isotropic (due metamict, apparently), a refractive index of more than 2,0. In reflected light the color of cream and gray to creamy-white, the reflectivity of the good, comparable with ilmenite (absolute for different wavelengths: from 15,0 for 700 millimicron, to 22,7 for 470 millimicron), isotropic, internal reflections of reddish-brown, clearly visible in immersion.
radioactive: due to the high content of uranium.

Peculiarities of chemical composition

The composition of the complex, varies considerably. Currently A position is considered open, ie. bye bye known samarskite with a predominance of Y and nomenclature they are called samarskit-(Y) (these include Ilmensky samarskite), but it is possible to find in nature samarskite, in which the other element will prevail. In position A, usually, high levels of U, and Fe2 + and Fe3 + ions, that some researchers are allocated to a separate group. In position B Nb Ta greatly dominates, Ti content is usually low.

Svyazhina (svyazhinite)

(Mg,Mn2+)(Al,Fe3+)(SO4)2F . 14H2THE

History of discovery

The mineral is found BV. Chesnokov in 1981 year old crushed stone quarry Mr.. Miass, Located near the cordon “Black River” Ilmen reserve – western slope Ilmeny. It is a mineral in the fracture, dissecting pyroxene-amphibole fenites, enriched with pyrite and fluorite. Named in honor of the Ural mineralogist Svyazhina Nikolai, studied the complex mineralogy alkali wintergreen and in the Ural Mountains Ilmen. Svyazhina is a typical product pyrite supergene- and flyuoritsoderzhaschih alkaline rocks Ilmeny.

Nomenclature mineral

Monazite as a mineral species
In mineralogy system Svyazhina relates to a class of sulfates, and a complex aqueous fluoro-Mg sulfate, Mn, Al, Fe. By [31] It is close to obertitu: Which(SO4)2Cl . 14H2THE. It refers to the triclinic system, space group P1 or P1 (obertyta in P1).

crystal structure

I have not been studied.

morphology

form finding
Found in the intersecting fracture as yellowish cavernous lumps to 2-3 cm in diameter. The internal part of the fine-grained lumps, and act on the surface of the fan-shaped bundle of plate crystals less thick 0,1 mm, across to 0,3-0,5 mm (rarely up 1 mm). crystals (Fig.1) flattened by (014) and have a tabular form. The faceted found 10 forms. crystallographic constants: a : b : c = 2 ,126 : 1 : 2,111; alpha = 90about, beta = 94about, gamma = 82about. The immersion preparations met counterparts at (014).

Fig.1. crystal svyazhinita (custom installation).
Facets of forms: a{100}, b{010}, m{110}, d{210}, e{410}, f{014}

The main physical characteristics

Density: measured – 1,67 g / cm3, calculated – 1,69 g / cm3.
Hardness: on a ten Mohs 2.
Cleavage: by {010} – medium.
Color: colorless crystals; aggregates of yellowish-white, yellow with pink tinge.
feature: white.
shine: glass.
transparent: transmitted light colorless, biaxial, negative, small angle 2V (calculated = 50about). A = 1.444; Nm=1,439; Np = 1.423; Ng-Np = 0.021. plane Ng – Np is close to (014), Nm is close to the surface normal (014) – (rice).
additional characteristics: legkoplavok, readily soluble in cold water. Taste is burning-astringent, solonovatыy.

Peculiarities of chemical composition

In addition to the elements, included in the formula, svyazhinita composed in minor amounts set K, Na, That.

Ushkova (ushkovite)


MgFe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 . 8H2THE

History of discovery

Ushkova found BV. Chesnokov in 1979 year in the vein of granite pegmatite mines number 232 Ilmen reserve. Ushkova along with other phosphates is a part triplita modify products, forming a slot near the quartz core nucleus. It also found Kalugin and Matveeva. Named in honor of Professor Sergei L. Ushkova, scientist – naturalysta, researcher of the nature reserve Ilmensky.

Nomenclature mineral

Ushkova as a mineral species
In mineralogy system Ushkova belongs to a class of phosphates, by [27] – group paravoksita, AS for classification. cookery [21]: subclass – chain, the Department – water with additional anions, Group – klinovoksita-lauэita, subgroup – lauéita. Mineral refers to the triclinic crystal system, space group P or P11.

crystal structure

For proper ushkovita not investigated, but [30] it sochton isostructural basic aqueous phosphate (lauéitu, gordonitu, paravoksitu, sigloitu). Structure in lauэyta [21] Figure 1 is described as follows. The chemical formula for laueita [27] Mn2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2.8H2THE, crystal-on [21] Mn(H2THE)4{Fe2(H2THE)2[PO4]2(OH)2}.2H2THE. The main elements of the structure are laueita Fe-octahedra, Mn-P-octahedrons and tetrahedrons. Fe-octahedra, associated with each other OH-vertices, form chains, oriented along the c axis. After O-vertex Fe-P-octahedra by further tetrahedra linked in chains, as well as Fe-octahedra adjacent chains, forming layers form {Fe2(H2THE)2[PO4]2 (OH)2}2 – (crystal-see formula), parallel to the (010). In this case, one vertex of each P-tetrahedron (oxygen) focused “out” such a layer. Through this top layers communicate with each other through Mn-octahedra, in which two opposite vertices are O-vertices, in common with O-P-tetrahedron vertices adjacent layers. Four other Mn-octahedron vertices are not connected and busy molecules H2THE (crystal-see formula). Two molecules remaining H2O are located in the cavities have a zeolite structure and nature. Ushkovita structure is of the same type, Only Fe-P-layers do not bind Mn-octahedra (laueit), a Mg-octahedron (Ushkova).

rice .1. Structure lauэyta (by [21]): but – проекция на плоскость (001), в которой виден слой состава [Fe2(H2THE)2(PO4)2(OH2)2]2- parallel to the plane (010); b – проекция на плоскость (100), chains showing the structure of Fe-P-octahedrons and tetrahedrons, members of the layers. In the structure ushkovita place occupy octahedral Mn-Mg-octahedra.

morphology

form finding
Forms crystals and aggregates of crystals (to 2 mm) on the walls of the cavities in an altered triple or change its products. Marked radial aggregates. Many crystals are split in the direction [001], but frequent and plane-crystals. The appearance of the crystals is short- [001], isometric, sometimes slightly flattened at [001] (rice 1.). The faceted found 7 forms. crystallographic constants: a : b : c=0,488 : 1 : 0,661; alpha = 107about42`, beta = 110about26`, gamma = 72about35`.

Fig.1 crystals ushkovita.

Facets of forms: c{001}, b{010}, a{100}, m{110}, M{110}

The main physical characteristics

Density: measured – 2,38 g / cm3, calculated – 2,4 g / cm3.
Hardness: on a ten Mohs 3,5.
izlom: Cleavage is perfect for {010}, fragile.
Color: from light yellow to orange-yellow or light-brown.
feature: bright, yellowish.
shine: by the glass (on the verge of) to pearl (of spaynosti) and zhirnovat (the izlom).
transparent: sometimes turbid. In the transmitted light slightly yellowish;
biaxial, 2V about 50about, Strong dispersion of the optic axes (r>v);
Of 1,670 =; Nm=1,637; Np = 1.584; Ng-Np = 0.086; angle with:A = 26about; Ng Nm and are substantially parallel {010}.
additional characteristics: legkoplavok, is fused into the magnetic bead black. In a closed tube when heated releases a lot of water.

Peculiarities of chemical composition

According to the different types of tests as part of ushkovita, besides main Fe, Mg and P installed impurity elements Mn, That, Al.

Ftorrihterit (fluoro-Richterite)

Na2 That (Mg,Fe2+)5And8 THE22 (F,OH)2

History of discovery

Named in composition and similarity to richterite. Essentially ftorrihterit it is a mineral of the amphibole group, having a composition, similar richterite, only in the position of the volatile components in his F- prevails over (OH)- (in richterite – conversely).

The discovery of the mineral amphibole study was initiated from apogiperbazitovyh fenites Buldym ultramafic massif in the northern part of the mountain Cherry [19]. Unusual composition of amphibole, namely – high fluoride, attracted the attention of researchers. A data analysis on earlier studies showed amphiboles Ilmeny, that the mineral, described earlier as richterite, It is also a high-F [1]. According to current rules of nomenclature of minerals the prevalence of any component in a certain position (rule 50%) It is a species-specific sign. Researchers have been found, that F- prevails over (OH)-, This served as the basis for the allocation of new mineral. The new mineral was approved ftorrihterit KHM MMA 29 August 1992 g. The first description ftorrihterita as a new mineral is given in [3].

Nomenclature mineral

Ftorrihterit as a mineral species
In mineralogy system ftorrihterit belongs to a class of silicates, AS for classification. cookery [21]: class – chain, subdivision – with additional anions or radicals, amphibole group.
Mineral relates to monoclinic symmetry and has the form c2 / m.

crystal structure

The crystal structure is common to ftorrihterita amphiboles [23]: double chains of silicon-oxygen tetrahedra linked MeO-octahedra. The last term tape, within MeO-octahedra which differ from each other by a number of characteristics, depending on the position in the tape: M(1), M(2), M(3) and M(4) – (rice. 1).

Structure amfybolov (rihterit, by [23])

M(1) – M(3): Mg, Mn, Fe2+, Fe3+, Al, Ti
M(4): That, Na, and Li, Mg, Mn, Fe2+
T(1) and T(2): And, Al
A: Na.

morphology

form finding
form finding: in fenites Ilmeny ftorrihterit recorded in the form of fine grain size 0,1 – 2 mm, associated with microcline, albite, phlogopite. In carbonatites Buldym array (Cherry mountain) and alkali apogiperbazitovyh metasomatites Ilmeny (mine number 97 IGZ) forming a rather large grain size of the crystals, and even up to 10 cm (Fig.1), associated with calcite, pyrochlore, zircons, apatite, pyrite, pirrotinom and ilmenite. Crystallographic studies of crystals has not been, but in [3] faceted crystals in a marked form{100}, b{010}, and m{110}, and the crystals themselves have a prismatic shape and elongated along the c axis – [001].

Fig.1. Ftorrihterit. Flat prismatic crystals and aggregates of crystals in the coarse dolomite (with monazite). Moose. Countdown. №5023.

Ftorrihterit. Flat prismatic crystals, in a granular dolomite. Moose. Countdown. №8476.

The main physical characteristics

Density: at [3] is not given, for richterite [23] is 2,93 – 3,51 g / cm3.
Hardness: on a ten Mohs 5 – 6.
izlom: splintery, hrupok. Cleavage is perfect for (110).
Color: light green to blue-green.
feature: white.
shine: glass.
transparent: Transmitted light biaxial, negative, positive elongation, plane of the optical axes – (010). The angle of optical axes 2V = 71-71o. index of refraction: Of 1627-1629 =; Nm=1,621; Np = 1,612-1,618; birefringence = 18-26about. There dispersion optical axes (v>r) and anomalous interference colors – indigo blue Ibur. strong pleochroism: по Ng – bluish-green, in Nm – brownish-green (sometimes lilac), by Np – light brown to colorless. Scheme pleochroism Ng>Nm>For example,.

Peculiarities of chemical composition

Furthermore species-specific elements (cm. formula) composed ftorrihterita set K – 0,2-0,32 f. It is., Fe3 + – to 0,6 f. It is., Al – to 0,27 f. It is., and a minor amount of Ti, Mn. The content of F – 1,12-1,5 f. it is.

Khiolit (chiolite)

Na5Al3F14

History of discovery

AT 1845 year in the development of topaz mine (now number 69) It was greeted with a diameter of about nest 1 m, sloƶennoe kriolitom (ice stone) and then the unknown mineral, like, in plotnyhskopleniyah, on lumps of snow. Hence the name, derived from the Greek “snow stone”. As a new mineral and is described by Hermann Auerbach [37], determine its composition. Crystallographic studies conducted NI. Koksharov later.

Nomenclature mineral

Chiolite as a mineral species
In mineralogy system chiolite belongs to a class of fluorides, AS for classification. cookery [21]: subclass – complex. It refers to the tetragonal system, type symmetry P4 / mnc.

crystal structure

The basis structure are AlF6-octahedra, which form the layers parallel to the axis c, connecting at the same time with neighboring octahedra: one third – four vertices, and two thirds – only two. Adjacent layers are shifted relative to each other on a diagonal half of the diagonals (Fig.1). One fifth of Na atoms are arranged in layers of large voids, and four-fifths – between layers in eightfold coordination.

Structure hyolyta (by [28])

The voids, educated AlF6-octahedra within a layer, Na located (Na, located between the layers is not shown).

morphology

form finding
The mineral is very rare, Ilmenite is known in only one copy (№ 69). It forms a fine-grained aggregates and solid dense masses. Crystals dipiramidalnogo appearance (rice …), the main form – dipiramida o{111}, to varying degrees blunted dipyramid n{012} and very dull ditetragonalnoy dipyramid z, whose characters are not identified due to the curved edges (rice. 1), also marked pinacoid c{110}. Uncommon for twins (111).

Fig.1 Imperfect crystal hyolithid

Fig.2. crystals (1,2) and twin (3) hiolita
Facets of forms: Facets of forms: The{111}, n{102}, with{hhl}

The main physical characteristics

>Density: measured – 2,13 g / cm3; calculated – 2,14 g / cm3.
Specific gravity: 2,995 – 3,005 g / cm3.
Hardness: on a ten Mohs 3,5 – 4.
izlom: conchoidal, Cleavage is perfect for {001}.
Color: colorless, in granular clusters of white.
shine on a break glass, on the cleavage planes – pearlescent.
transparent, a single-axis thin sections, negative, extinction relatively direct cleavage, No=1,3486, Ne = 1.3424, No-Ne = 0,0062.

Peculiarities of chemical composition

Composition hyolithid close to stoichiometric, theoretical (in lard.%): Na = 24,88, Al=17,53, F=57,59. There were minor impurity K, That, Mg.

chevkinite (chevkinit)

(This,The)4 (Fe2+,Mg)2(Ti,Fe3+)3 And4THE22

History of discovery

Chevkinite was first defined and named by Gustav Rose in 1839 year [24] in the material, he had received from the CI. Lysenko. According to the analysis of mineral it proved difficult titanosilicate rare earths cerium subgroup and iron. Initially, specific sampling in Ilmen mountains was not known and was considered extremely rare mineral. Subsequently, several objects were found, in which it occurs (in particular mines № 17, 183 etc.).

Nomenclature mineral

Chevkinite as a mineral species
In mineralogy system chevkinite belongs to a class of silicates, AS for classification. cookery [21]: subclass – island, the Department – with isolated pairs of tetrahedra Si2O7 (diortosilikaty),subdivision – with additional anions or radicals, perrerita group. Mineral refers to monoklinnooy syngony, space group C2 / m.

crystal structure

The crystal structure is considered analogous chevkinite- perrerita-tech structure with some differences. In general, it can be described as follows:. The basis structure comprise TiO6-octahedra, that, connecting ribs, form chains, elongated in the direction of the axis b, wherein the two types of chains (Fig.1). Connecting vertices TiO6-these chains form octahedra layers, parallel planes c(001). groups, in its turn, are interconnected diortogruppami Si2THE7 and Fe2+THE6-octahedra (last link diortogruppy Si2THE7 adjacent layers). Ce atoms (The, Th et al.) located in “cavities” between TiO6-octahedrons and Si diortogruppami2THE7. Unlike the chevkinite and perrerita structure is in a different position diortogrupp Si2THE7 with respect to the chains TiO6-octahedra: y chevkinite passes along these chains helical twofold axis, and at perrerita – simple twofold axis turning.

Fig.1. Structure chevkynyta (by [29])

1 – The projection onto the plane (001), a profile Ti-octahedra layers visible, parallel (001). 2 – structure element: Ti-chain octahedra, you- extend along axis b, with attached thereto diorto Si-groups2THE7

morphology

form finding
a rare mineral. Despite, chevkinite that was opened in the first half of the 19th century, Ilmenite in its crystals were found only in the 20 th century. Prior to that, he had met as a grain of irregular shape and dense pieces of different sizes (Fig.1). crystals, usually, flattened by a (from the plate to tolstotablitchatyh) and elongated in the direction b. The faceted Ilmen installed about chevkinite 15 forms [17], All in all, chevkinite (taking into account other fields) we know more 20 forms. Common counterparts on c (Fig.2).

Fig.1. chevkinite . Feldspar crystals in pegmatite. Moose. Countdown. №7324.

Fig.2. chevkinite . Feldspar crystals in pegmatite. Moose. Countdown. №7880.

The main physical characteristics

Specific gravity: 4,4 – 4,9 g / cm3.
Hardness: on a ten Mohs 5 – 6 (by [17] – 5,5); mikrotvërdostʹ 760 kg / mm2.
izlom: uneven to conchoidal, hrupok, cpaynost imperfect by (001) or missing.
Color: pitch-black, velvety-black to dark brown.
feature: from brownish black to light brown.
shine: strong, by smolyanogo to almazovidnogo.
Opaque or slaboprozrachen: slightly translucent in thin breaks on the edges of a reddish-brown color. The transmitted light (by [17]) slightly transparent, dark- reddish-brown to yellowish-red, Nm = 1,88 – 1,97, birefringence = 0,01 – 0,02, biaxial, negative.
radioactive: due to the presence of Th.

Peculiarities of chemical composition

mineral composition of a fairly complex. If it is represented as formula A4B2Ti3And4THE22 (where A – This, The, That, Th et al.; B – Fe2+, Mg and others.), it may be noted, Ti and Si that is relatively stable position: Ti in position sometimes appears in appreciable quantities Fe2+, and Si position – Al. In positions A and B are oscillations element content, And A position is considered open: yet known chevkinite with Ce predominance in this position (These include the Ilmen), ie. it chevkinit-(This), It does not exclude the prevalence in the position of the other elements. Of the other elements in position A (in appreciable amounts) chronically Ca, Th, rare earth elements (The, Nd i dr.). position B – is the position of divalent cations, usually Fe2+ and Mg, sometimes present Mn, etc..

Eshinit-(This) (aeschynite-(This))

(This,That,Fe,Th) (Ti,Nb)2(THE,OH)6

History of discovery

As a new mineral eshinit-(This) described Y.YA. Berzelius in 1828 was called “aeschynite” [36] materials I.N. Money (black crystals with a resinous luster). Initially by I.N. Menge was defined as gadolinium (silicate Y, Fe и Be). but I.YA. Berzelius showed, that this “gadolinium” It is an entirely new substance, “containing 35 – 38 % titanic acid compound with tsirkozomom”. only name “aeschynite” It is derived from Greek and means “I am ashamed” or “shame” – thereby Berzelius stressed, that while chemists still were not able to completely separate “titanic acid” (titanium dioxide) from “zirconium land” (zirconia).

Nomenclature mineral

Aeschynite as a mineral species
In mineralogy system aeschynite relates to a class of oxides, AS for classification. cookery [21]: subclass – wireframe, the Department – complex, Group – aeschynite (eskhinita). It crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, type symmetry Pbnm.

crystal structure

The basis structure is (Ti,Nb)-octahedra. Common edge they bind in pairs, and a pair are interconnected vertices, forming a zigzag belt, oriented along the c axis. Between such a tape is also connected by vertices, forming a frame, in which the cavities are located atoms of Ce, Y et al. (Fig.1). Ce atoms, Y et al., associated with oxygen around them (Ti,Nb)-octahedra, It can be regarded as distorted eight-vertex, that, interconnected edges, form isolated chains, also oriented along the c axis.

Structure эshynyta (by [21])

Ti(Nb)-octahedra, connecting pairs ribs, and a pair of – vertices, form a frame, in which the cavities are located atoms of Ce.

morphology

form finding
a rare mineral, It occurs in the form of elongated grains and crystals, usually imperfect (Fig.1). The crystals Ilmen aeschynite set not less than 6 forms, just as they (taking into account other fields) we know about 10 (Fig.2). There were parallel splices, doubles unknown.

Fig.1. Crystal. Moose. Countdown. №7385. Fig.2. Crystals feldspar. Moose. Countdown. №4553.

The main physical characteristics

Specific gravity: 4,9 – 5,3 g / cm3, in antaleshinita – to 5,8 g / cm3.
Hardness: on a ten Mohs 5-6 (by [5] – about 5), mikrotvërdostʹ 593 – 734 kg / mm2, tantaléşïnïta – to 764 kg / mm2.
izlom: conchoidal to uneven, cleavage in Ilmensky aeschynite not installed, hrupok.
Color: brown-black, dark-brown to reddish-brown.
feature: brown, tantaléşïnïta – pale yellow to brownish-yellow.
shine: glass, smolyanoy to polumetalicheskogo.
Transparency: cleaved into thin translucent reddish-brown, brownish-yellow color. In transmitted light, dark cherry-red, reddish-brown, brownish-yellow; metamict not pleochroic (by [5] N = 2,1 – 2,26); crystal pleochroic markedly Ng ~ 2,34 – 2,5 (brown), Nm ~ 2,35 (brown), ~ e.g. 2,28 (yellowish-brown); of > For example,; biaxial, positive, 2V ~ 75 – 80The, direct extinction: Ng = c, Np = a. The reflected light cream-gray; the reflectivity of the medium, lower than that of ilmenite (by [35] at %: white light – 15,6, in blue – 22,5, green – 19,3, Zelt – 14,5, orange and red – 14,0); internal reflexes weak, brownish-yellow and reddish.

Peculiarities of chemical composition

Despite the seeming simplicity of the overall (basic) formula: AB2O6, in natural minerals to this formula is implemented isomorphism in the most widely – in position A (rare earth elements, Th, Ca and others.), and in position B (Ti, Nb, Ta). Depending on the prevalence of a particular element in the corresponding position (by [39]) currently installed in nature following mineral species. According to the position B: actually aeschynite – a driving member Ti, nioboeshinit – leading element Nb, tantaléşïnït – leading element Ta; it is all root name minerals. For each of these elements known variation in position A. In fact aeschynite: eshinit-(This) – by the predominance of Ce, eshinit-(Nd) – by the predominance of Nd, eshinit-(Y) – on the prevalence of Y, toroeshinit – predominance of Th. In nioboeshinitah: nioboeshinit-(This) – by the predominance of Ce, nioboeshinit-(Nd) – by the predominance of Nd, vidzhetstsit – predominance of Ca. In tantaleshinitah: tantaléşïnït-(Y) – on the prevalence of Y and rinersonit – predominance of Ca. in total 9 independent mineral species. Mineral, first described in ilmenite as the “aeschynite”, now it refers to the form “eshinit-(This)”. All the other first discovered in other deposits. However, later in ilmenite were opened: eshinit-(Y) (blomstrandin Hauser), nioboeshinit-(This) (lyndochite Popova VI), toroeshinit (for chemical analysis of various authors).

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