South Urals Federal Research Center of Mineralogy and Geoecology of the Urals Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences

minerals, first discovered in ilmenite

A Short History of mineralogical study Ilmeny

Between the end of XVIII-th until the end of the XIX-th century in the southern part Ilmeny been intensive work on the search of mica (muscovite). The first published information about the Ilmen mountains we find in 1786 g. u P. WITH. Pallas (Pallas, 1786), where he mentions "mica mine at Chebarkul ', as well as the lake "Ilmen" and towering beside him "Ilmentau". It is also reported the discovery of green feldspar (Hermann B., 1789) and Serle (Severn, 1809).

The beginning of the study of minerals Ilmeny should consider visiting their summer 1826 g. German mineralogist, collector and explorer Johannes Menge. He described here 13 minerals, including zircon, nepheline, topaz, beryl (Money, 1826; 1827; 1830; amount, 1842). He first drew attention to the special composition of the main rock, component of the Ilmen ridge, proposing to allocate it to a specific type - "Ilmensky granite" (miaskite). samples, broadcasting and. Menge to explore the renowned scholar of the time, new minerals were discovered: ilmenite (Rose D., 1827; Roze G, 1839), eshinit-(This) (Berzelius, 1828), monatsit-(This) (Breytgaupt, 1829).

AT 1829 Ilmeny year visiting the famous mineralogist Gustav Rose, He worked in the expedition of the Academy of Sciences A. Humboldt. cancrinite - In samples of his collection, a new mineral was discovered (Roze G., 1839).

Exploration and development of gem corundum and led the development of mining operations in the Ilmen mountains, reveals new pegmatite veins, stone material continues to flow to researchers. Open new minerals: chevkinit-(This) (Roze G., 1840), samarskit-(Y) (Roze H., 1847), khiolit (Hermann, Auerbach, 1846) .

The second half of the XIX century begins the discovery of new mineral - ilmenorutile, found and studied Russian scientist, mineralogist and crystallographer H. AND. Koksharov (1856), P. AT. Eremeev described helvite first in Russia (Eremeev, 1868).

Generally, in the XIX century, various researchers made a significant contribution to the study of mineralogy Ilmeny, balo discovered and described 46 minerals, in t. no. 8 - new.

At the beginning of the XX century Ilmeny visit and study famous Russian Geology and Mineralogy: BUT. P. Karpinski (described pyroxene), BUT. E. Fersman (Mesolithic, natrolite), BUT. WITH. Belyankin (amphibole, pyroxene, talc, spinel et al.), AT. AND. Vernadsky (iksiolit), AT. AND. Kryzhanovsky (povellit, thorite et al.). Foreign mineralogists been described: eshinit-(Y) (Hauser et al., 1910); gearksutit, kriolitionit, tomsenolit (Boggild, 1913).

1911-1916 gg. - works Radium expedition Academy of Sciences under the guidance of. AND. Vernadsky.

WITH 1920-1950 gg. on the territory of Ilmen Reserve worked our scientists: E. AT. Aralovets, M. WITH. Afanasiev, D. P. Barsanov, D. WITH. Belyankin, B. BUT. Berezin, BUT. n. Zavaritskii, BUT. BUT. Ivanov, P. AT. Kalinin, BUT. BUT. Kozakov, AT. AND. Kryzhanovsky, WITH. D. priest's, TO. AND. there, R. B. ruble, M. P. Rusakov, BUT. BUT. Sauk, n. n. Smirnov (He described 18 minerals), BUT. AND. Simonov, BUT. D. Titov, D. P. Blueberries, etc..

AT 1949 g. monograph "Minerals Ilmen Reserve" under the editorship of acad. BUT. n. Zavaritskii, which describes 122 minerals.

Among the scholars of the second half of the XX century, uzuchavshih Ilmen minerals, it should be noted these researchers, And how. n. Labuncov (anatase, Garnet), L. E. Rothman (summarizes the work of pyroxene and amphibole), P. I. Jarosz (bastnesite), AND. E. Maltsev (the first in the Urals triple), AT. AND. Stepanov (three ftoralûminata of kopi 69), B. BUT. Makarochkin (8 minerals, in t. no. one new - fergusonit-(This)-b), AT. I. Levin (by Ilmeny Geology Monograph, which describes 5 New for IGZ minerals).

Beginning with 1975 g. Mineralogical investigations involved the staff of the reserve and the Institute of Mineralogy: AT. ABOUT. Poles (He described 40 minerals, in t. no. new - Makarochkin), B. AT. Chesnokov (22 mineral, in t. no. New - Svyazhina, Ushkova), AT. BUT. priest's (14 minerals, in t. no. new - polyakovit-(This)), BUT. D. Bazhenov (14 minerals, in t. no. New - ftororihterit, kaliyferroferrisadanagait, ftoromagnezioarfvedsonit), E. AT. Belogub (work polytypism mica), BUT. WITH. Varlakov (work on the mineralogy of ultramafic Ilmeny).

AT 1994 It was published the most comprehensive inventory of minerals Ilmeny, including 264 mineral species (Kobyashev, Poles, 1994). In 1998-99. Mineralogical group of the reserve, a revision of all the data for amphibole Ilmenogorsky complex, found 36 minerals of this group, in t. no. 18 New for Ilmeny (Nikandrov et al., 2000).

AT 2000 g. published inventory minerals Ilmeny, naschitavayuschy 268 mineral species and 94 species (Kobyashev, Nikandrov, Valizer, 2000).

On 2017 g. open 306 mineral species (Nikandrov, Rassomaxin, Nishanbaev, 2017).

amphiboles

introduction
Classification of the amphibole group of minerals in Mineralogy traditionally difficult. This is due both to the complexity of their composition, and with the complexity of the structure, wherein the same cations can be placed in different positions. All this together creates a fairly large number of combinatorial, which is difficult to organize. First, more or less logical classification amphiboles formulated in Face 1978 year (Leakе, 1978) called "amphibole nomenclature", it was approved by the International Mineralogical Association (MMA). It quite harmoniously systematized minerals amphibole group based on their crystal chemistry, as well as the classification of developed amphibole rules to a particular type of mineral. Moreover, there are some amphibole, derived theoretically (given the composition and names), ie. this amphibole, which exist in nature may, but at this time they are not found. The development of the "nomenclature" is the nomenclature, also created and co-workers in the Face 1997 year (Leakе et al., 1997), which has also been approved by MMA and recommended for use. It simplifies the nomenclature 1978 of the year, but on the whole it is more logical and strict.

Amphiboles mineralogy system
In mineralogy system, Classification A. WITH. cookery (cookery, 1966), amphiboles are in class III - silicates, subclass 4 - chain, subsection II - with additional anions or radicals, Group 3 - amphibole. All new amphibole Ilmeny belong to the monoclinic system, have the form of symmetry C2 / m.

The crystal structure of the amphibole
Crystal structure of the type common to amphiboles: double chains of silicon-oxygen tetrahedra linked MeO-octahedra. The last term tape, within MeO-octahedra which differ from each other by a number of characteristics, depending on the position in the tape: M(1), M(2), M(3) and M(4) (rice. from "Richter, 1981»).

rice.
M(1) – M(3): Mg, Mn, Fe2 +, Fe3 +, Al, Ti
M(4): That, Na, and Li, Mg, Mn, Fe2 +
T(1) and T(2): And, Al
A: Na.

amphibole İlmen
By the early 80-ies of researchers has accumulated a wealth of information on amphibole Ilmeny. And 1982 was an attempt to organize it in accordance with the classification of Lika 1978 of the year (Bajenov et al., 1982). It turned out, that part of the Ilmen amphibole corresponds theoretically derived Face. In the course of further works previously unknown to the ilmenite "sadanagait" have been described (1988) and "ftormagnezioarfvedsonit" (1992), to the certification they are not included in MMA. He has also been described "ftorrihterit" - it was submitted for certification in MMA and has been approved 1992 year. Revision of historical data and obtaining new data and evaluate their positions with nomenclature 1997 years has identified several amphibole, not previously known to science, they were all approved by the MMA: kalioferrisadanagait (1997), ftormagnezioarfvedsonit (1999), ferrivinchit (2004), kaliymagneziogastingsit (2005).
AT 2012 MMA was changed some principles of nomenclature and taxonomy of amphibole (Hawthorne et al., 2012), in connection with which some amphibole were renamed, in particular: kalioferrisadanagait in kaliyferroferrisadanagait, ftormagnezioarfvedsonit in magnezioftorarfvedsonit.

literature
A Bazhenov. G., Kutepova L. BUT., Well Shterbakova. P. By taxonomy amphibole Ilmenogorsky complex // Mineralogical studies of endogenous deposits of the Urals. Sverdlovsk: UC USSR Academy of Sciences, 1982. WITH. 78–92.
A Bazhenov. G., Bazhenova L. F., Polyakov. ABOUT. Sadanagait of complex alkali Ilmeny // VMO. 1988. № 1. WITH. 74–78.
A Bazhenov. D. The finding ftormagnezioarfvedsonita in fenites Ilmenogorsky alkaline complex and the problem arfvedsonite, glaucophane, riebeckite Ilmeny complex in alkaline hot-Vishnyevye // Minerals and mineral raw materials of the Urals. Yekaterinburg: UB RAS, 1992. WITH. 26–32.
A Bazhenov. G., And Nedosekova. L., E Petersen. IN. Ftorrihterit Na2That(Mg,Fe2+)5[Si8O22](F,OH)2 - a new mineral in the amphibole group // Zap. WMO. 1993. BUT. 122. AT. 3. WITH. 98–102.
A Bazhenov. D. new amphibole, detected in alkaline complex after Ilmeny 1982 of the year // Mineralogy of the Urals. T. I. nauchn. ed.: Mater. III-rd regional. ings of the Conference. Miass: Yimin UB RAS, 1998. WITH. 22–24.
A Bazhenov. G., Bazhenova L. F., Krinova T. AT., Hvorov P. AT. Kaliyferrisadanagait (K,Na)That2(Fe2+,Mg)3(Fe3+,Al)2[And5Al3THE22](OH)2 - a new mineral species in the amphibole group (Ilmen mountains, YU. Ural) // Zap. WMO. 1999. BUT. 128. AT. 4. WITH. 50–55.
A Bazhenov. G., And Nedosekova. L., Krinova T. AT., But Mironov. B., Hvorov M. AT. Ftormagnezioarfvedsonit NaNa2(Mg,Fe2+)4Fe3+[And8THE22](F,OH)2 - a new mineral species in the amphibole group (alkaline complex Ilmeny hot-Vishnyevye, Southern Urals) // Zap. WMO. 2000. BUT. 129. № 6. WITH. 28–35.
A Bazhenov. G., Mironov. B., Muftaxov B. BUT., Hvorov P. AT. Ferrivinchit NaCaMg4Fe3+[And8THE22](OH,F)2 - a new mineral of the amphibole group (Ilmenogorsky alkaline complex, Southern Urals) // Zap. RMO. 2005. № 3. WITH. 74–77.
In Korinevsky. G., Well Korinevskiy. AT. Kaliymagneziogastingsit KCa2(Mg4 Fe3+)5(And6Al2)8THE22(OH)2 - a new mineral species of amphibole // Notes RMI, 2006. № 2. WITH. 49–57.
AS cookbooks. Crystal-classification of mineral species. Kiev: "Scientific thought". 1966. 547 with.
Polyakov. ABOUT., A Bazhenov. D. The first finding magneziosadanagaita in Russia // Ural. miner. Sat.. № 8. Miass: Yimin UB RAS, 1998. WITH. 249–251.
Rihterit // minerals: Directory. M.: science. 1981. T. 3. MY. 3. WITH. 188–198.
Hawthorne F. C. et al. Nomenclature of the amphibole supergroup // American Mineralogist. 2012. Vol. 97. 2031–2048.
Leakе B. E. Nomenclature of amphiboles // Amer. Miner. 1978. V. 63. № 11–12. P. 1023–1052.
Leake B. E. et al. Nomenclature of amphiboles: report of the Subcommittee an amphiboles of the International Mineralogical Association, Commission on new minerals and mineralnames // Canadian Mineralogist. 1997. V. 35. P. 219-246.

Inventories minerals Ilmeny and Ural
1. Valizer P. M., S Kobyashev. WITH., Nikandr. n. amphiboles Urals. Miass: IGZ UB RAS, 2004. 139 with.
2. S Kobyashev. WITH., Nikandr. N., Valizer P. M. Minerals Ilmeny, 2000 g. Miass: IGZ UB RAS, 2000. 119 with.
3. S Kobyashev. WITH., Nikandr. n. minerals of the Urals (mineral species and varieties). Yekaterinburg: ed. "Square". 2007. 312 with.
4. Nikandr. N., S Kobyashev. WITH., Valizer P. M. Amphibole İlmenogorskogo complex. Miass: IGZ UB RAS, 2000. 120 with.

Note: in bold with the first article describing the mineral.

list of amphibole

  • Ftorrihterit

  • Magnezioftorarfvedsonit

  • Ferrivinchit

  • Kaliyferroferrisadanagait

  • Kaliymagneziogastingsit

ilmenite (ilmenite)

Fe2+TiO3

History of discovery

Ilmenite is mounted in the collection and. n. Money 1824 of the year. These materials present shiny black crystals, And that. n. Menge considered tantalite. They were handed over to them for the study of several mineralogists: J.. D. Geylandu, BUT. F. Kupfer and others. Based on measurements of the angles between the faces of the crystals Kupfer took them to the monoclinic crystal system and called "ilmenite" (Kupffer, 1827). Gustav Roze, to obtain crystals of the "tantalite" from Weiss and also measure their, found similarities with crystals, studied Kupfer, but took them to the trigonal system, while pointing, which is probably due to the distorted shape of the crystals, they were installed incorrectly Kupfer (Rose G., 1827). here, on the basis of chemical analysis, conducted by Henry Rose, he said, that this is a titaniferous mineral iron. Thus turned, that gave the name of the mineral A. F. Kupffer, and correctly identified it (composition and symmetry) - Gustav Roze. It should be noted, that from the sands in Mennakane (Kornoul, England) nearly a quarter of a century before the opening of ilmenite McGregor described similar mineral called "menakkanit" referring to (McGregor Wm., 1791). However, he was not sufficiently studied and in the nomenclature of minerals approved the name "ilmenite".

Nomenclature mineral

Ilmenite as a mineral species
In mineralogy ilmenite system belongs to the class oxides; Classification A. WITH. cookery (1966): subclass – coordination, the Department – complex, ilmenite group. It crystallizes in the trigonal system, type symmetry R3. The mineral is widespread in nature, It is currently the main source of titanium.

crystal structure

crystal structure ilmenite has the same type, as corundum: oxygen atoms form a hexagonal close packing, in octahedral interstices its situated metal atoms (Fe and Ti), but not all, but only in 2/3 (the so-called “korundovomu motif”), the remaining voids (1/3) – vacant. Fe and Ti in the structure are not distributed uniformly (statistical), and layers: THE – Ti – THE – Fe – THE – Ti and t.d. [8], whereby symmetry is lowered ilmenite, compared with corundum (R3 and R3c respectively.

Structuring ilmenite (minerals, 1967)

1 – Two types of octahedral structure (Fe and Ti);

2 – also, the individual layers;

3 – motif in the layer structure, perpendicular to the axis c.

The distribution of Fe and Ti atoms in the ilmenite structure (Bregg, Klaringbull, 1967).

The projection onto the plane (2110).

morphology

form finding
Dense granular clusters, often tabular grains, plate. lamellar crystals, tabular to equant (rice. 1). The limitation set (rice. 2): the usual forms of – 16, rare and unreliable – more 30. Known counterparts on (0001) and (1011), and polysynthetic along the same lines.

Fig.1. ilmenite
crystals. Muz.obr. (from left to right) №5080 and №4502.
Fig.2. The crystals of ilmenite
Facets of forms: c{0001}, r{1011}, s{0221}, e{0112}, n`{2243}, `n{2423}

The main physical characteristics

Specific gravity: 4,6-4,8 g / cm3.
Hardness: on a ten Mohs – 5-6;
mikrotvërdostʹ (According to various sources) by ~ 500 to 825 kg / mm2.
izlom: uneven to conchoidal, Cleavage is not expressed, sometimes it marked separately (0001) and (1011), as a consequence of polysynthetic twinning.
Color: iron-black, sometimes with a brownish or steel-gray tint.
feature: black, sometimes brownish.
shine: polumetallicheskiy to metalicheskogo.
magnetically: nonmagnetic or slabomagniten.
optical behavior (Directory…, 1988): opaque, in a very thin breaks slightly translucent brownish-red. The reflected light (in polished sections) light gray, moderately low reflection (higher than that of magnetite, but lower than that of hematite).

Peculiarities of chemical composition

A theoretical structure of pure ilmenite (vetting3): Ugly – 47,34 wt.%; Ugly2– 52,66 wt.%. But this structure is unstable. Typically there Fe2THE3, sometimes in fairly large quantities; and Mg – so-called picroilmenite, и Mn2+ – manganilymenit.
Of the other impurities were observed: Nb – in ilmenite from alkali sawmills; V, Cr, Co, Ni – a major rock ilmenites; and Sc, Zn, Sn, Ba, Sr, Y, Th.

Eshinit-(This) (aeschynite-(This))

(This,That,Fe,Th) (Ti,Nb)2(THE,OH)6

History of discovery

As a new mineral eshinit-(This) described and. I. Berzelius in 1828 , entitled "aeschynite" (Berzelius, 1828) of materials and. n. Money (black crystals with a resinous luster). Initially themselves and. n. Menge was defined as gadolinium (silicate Y, Fe и Be). But also. I. Berzelius showed, that this "gadolinite" is an entirely new substance, "Containing 35-38 % titanic acid compound with tsirkozomom”. only name “aeschynite” It is derived from Greek and means “I am ashamed” or “shame” – thereby Berzelius stressed, that while chemists still were not able to completely separate “titanic acid” (titanium dioxide) from “zirconium land” (zirconia).

Nomenclature mineral

Aeschynite as a mineral species
In mineralogy system aeschynite relates to a class of oxides, AS for classification. cookery (1966): subclass – wireframe, the Department – complex, Group – aeschynite (eskhinita). It crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, type symmetry Pbnm.

crystal structure

The basis structure is (Ti,Nb)-octahedra. Common edge they bind in pairs, and a pair are interconnected vertices, forming a zigzag belt, oriented along the c axis. Between such a tape is also connected by vertices, forming a frame, in which the cavities are located atoms of Ce, Y et al. (Fig.1). Ce atoms, Y et al., associated with oxygen around them (Ti,Nb)-octahedra, It can be regarded as distorted eight-vertex, that, interconnected edges, form isolated chains, also oriented along the c axis.

Structure эshynyta (cookery, 1966)

Ti(Nb)-octahedra, connecting pairs ribs, and a pair of – vertices, form a frame, in which the cavities are located atoms of Ce.

morphology

a rare mineral, It occurs in the form of elongated grains and crystals, usually imperfect (Fig.1). The crystals Ilmen aeschynite set not less than 6 forms, just as they (taking into account other fields) we know about 10 (Fig.2). There were parallel splices, doubles unknown.

Fig.1. Crystal. Moose. Countdown. №7385. Fig.2. Crystals feldspar. Moose. Countdown. №4553.

The main physical characteristics

Specific gravity: 4,9-5.3 g / cm3, in antaleshinita – to 5,8 g / cm3.
Hardness: on a ten Mohs 5-6 (by (Barsanov, 1949) - near 5), microhardness 593-734 kg / mm2, tantaléşïnïta – to 764 kg / mm2.
izlom: conchoidal to uneven, cleavage in Ilmensky aeschynite not installed, hrupok.
Color: brown-black, dark-brown to reddish-brown.
feature: brown, tantaléşïnïta – pale yellow to brownish-yellow.
shine: glass, smolyanoy to polumetalicheskogo.
Transparency: cleaved into thin translucent reddish-brown, brownish-yellow color. In transmitted light, dark cherry-red, reddish-brown, brownish-yellow; metamict not pleochroic (by (Barsanov, 1949) N = 2,1–2,26); crystal pleochroic markedly Ng ~ 2,34-2,5 (brown), Nm ~ 2,35 (brown), ~ e.g. 2,28 (yellowish-brown); of > For example,; biaxial, positive, 2V ~ 75-80The, direct extinction: Ng = c, Np = a. The reflected light cream-gray; the reflectivity of the medium, lower than that of ilmenite (minerals, 1967) at %: white light - 15,6, in blue - 22,5, green - 19,3, zhёltom - 14,5, orange and red - 14,0; internal reflexes weak, brownish-yellow and reddish.

Peculiarities of chemical composition

Despite the seeming simplicity of the overall (basic) formula: AB2O6, in natural minerals to this formula is implemented isomorphism in the most widely – in position A (rare earth elements, Th, Ca and others.), and in position B (Ti, Nb, Ta). Depending on the prevalence of a particular element in the corresponding position (Levinson, 1966) currently installed in nature following mineral species. According to the position B: actually aeschynite – a driving member Ti, nioboeshinit – leading element Nb, tantaléşïnït – leading element Ta; it is all root name minerals. For each of these elements known variation in position A. In fact aeschynite: eshinit-(This) – by the predominance of Ce, eshinit-(Nd) – by the predominance of Nd, eshinit-(Y) – on the prevalence of Y, toroeshinit – predominance of Th. In nioboeshinitah: nioboeshinit-(This) – by the predominance of Ce, nioboeshinit-(Nd) – by the predominance of Nd, vidzhetstsit – predominance of Ca. In tantaleshinitah: tantaléşïnït-(Y) – on the prevalence of Y and rinersonit – predominance of Ca. in total 9 independent mineral species. Mineral, first described in ilmenite as the “aeschynite”, now it refers to the form “eshinit-(This)”. All the other first discovered in other deposits. However, later in ilmenite were opened: eshinit-(Y) (blomstrandin Hauser), nioboeshinit-(This) (lyndochite Popova VI), toroeshinit (for chemical analysis of various authors).

monazite (monazite)

(This,The)PO4

History of discovery

Monazite was found I.N. Money, but received them for zircon. This “zircon” he transferred to study G. Rose and A. Breythauptu. Last I defined it as a new mineral (Breytgaupt, 1829) and he called monazite: from the Greek – “stand alone”. According to one version – uncommon for, on the other – for it, that he initially met only in single crystals. later Brooks (Brooks, 1831) He described it as “mengit”, but the name did not catch. Finally mineral entered the range of the work of Mr.. pink (Rose, 1842), entitled, According to him antimonnickel, As described his first.

Nomenclature mineral

Monazite as a mineral species
In mineralogy, monazite system belongs to the class phosphates, Classification A. WITH. cookery (1966): subclass – island, the Department – without water and additional anions, subdivision – simple. Mineral refers to the monoclinic crystal system, kind of symmetry P21/n.

crystal structure

In general, the monazite structure can be represented as follows:. Ce atoms are in a coordination 9, at the same time tying six PO4-tetrahedra (rice. 1.): tetrahedra in the three Ce atom is bonded to two oxygen atoms (in the direction of c axis), forming chains along the axis c; in three more tetrahedra Ce associated with a single oxygen atom (across the axis c), linking chain between a.

Fig.1.

morphology

form finding
The mineral is relatively rare, but sometimes it accumulates in significant quantities in placers. It occurs in the form of crystals (Fig.1), sometimes granular clusters and earthy aggregates . As described in more faceted twenty forms, for Ilmensky monazite in [26] is 12 (Fig.2). Doubles are known: by {100} and {001}.

Fig.1. The splice-corundum crystals feldspar pegmatite. Moose. Countdown. Fig.2. individual crystals. Moose. Countdown. №5828 and №6057.

The main physical characteristics

(Simonov, 1949; Dan J.. etc., 1954)

Specific gravity: 4,6-5.4 g / cm3, preferably 5.0-5.2; increases
with an increase in the content of Th.
Hardness: on a ten Mohs 5-5.5.
izlom: conchoidal to uneven. Hrupok. Cleavage: perfect for {100}, by imperfect {010}, sometimes quite imperfect by {110}, {101} and {011}. Sometimes there is a distinct separately {001}, rarely {111}.
Color: yellowish-brown, reddish-brown, yellowish.
feature: colorless (white) or slightly yellowish.
shine: volatile – resinous, wax, close to the glass, to diamond.
shine through: in colorless transparent sections with very high relief. Interference color bright. of ~ 1,835; ~ e.g. 1,792. biaxial, positive, 2V ~ 13The.

Peculiarities of chemical composition

Currently mineralogy system by the prevalence of a rare earth element allocated three independent mineral species: monatsit-(This), monatsit-(The) and monatsit-(Nd). Known Ilmen monazite are meant monatsit-(This). known tests, wherein the content of La, I correct in the amount of a Di, very close to the content of Ce (number analysis 1 at (Simonov, 1949)), and even a little higher than its (number analysis 5 at (Simonov, 1949)). Of the other elements is common Th (in Ilmen content ThO2 comes to 25 wt.%).

cancrinite (cancrinite)

Na6That2Al6And6THE24(CO3)2

History of discovery

First Name "cancrinite" was given to Mr.. Kemmerer (Kemmerer, 1828) mineral "somewhat light purple, partly dark blue ", established in materials (fees) AND. n. Money. However, it soon became clear, it is similar to the sodalite with Vesuvius. AT 1829 year Ilmen Mountains visits Gustav Rose and in the materials describes the pink mineral, having, he noted, many similarities with nepheline and sodalite (Rose D., 1839). Since "cancrinite" was discredited, he proposed to call this new mineral pink cancrinite, to keep this name in mineralogy (Rose, 1842).

Nomenclature mineral

Cancrinite as a mineral species
In mineralogy system cancrinite belongs to a class of silicates; Classification A. WITH. cookery (1966): subclass – wireframe, the Department – aluminum silicates, subdivision – with additional anions. Group cancrinite. Mineral refers to the hexagonal system, type symmetry P6 / mmm.

crystal structure

It can be represented as follows:: Al- and Si-tetrahedrons, connecting vertices, form hexagonal rings in the plane c(0001), and these rings, connecting six, create large hexagonal cavity, in which atoms are arranged Na, Ca and other, and extra atoms and radicals (CO3, SO4, OH and so forth.)-(Fig.1).

Fig.1. Structure kankrynyta (Godovikov, 1975)
The projection onto the plane (001).

morphology

form finding
granular selection, anhedral separate blocks, pseudomorphs and kaomki ​​of nepheline (Fig.1). The crystals are rare, prizmaticheskogo gabitusa (Fig.2), the usual forms of: dipiramida {1011} and prism {1010}

Fig.1. cancrinite. Imperfect crystals yellow (the illustration with whitish bloom). Moose. Countdown. №6120.
Fig.2. crystal cancrinite. Facets of forms: a{1010}, r{1011}

The main physical characteristics

Specific gravity: 2,4-2.5 g / cm3.
Hardness: on a ten Mohs 5-5.5.
izlom: uneven, sometimes step. cleavage of {1010}
Medium to perfect.
Color: white, Gray, yellow, pink.
feature: colorless.
shine: on the cleavage plane – glass, sometimes pearlescent, the izlom – fatty.
optical behavior: in joint transparent, colorless; optically uniaxial, negative, negative elongation. the refractive index nThe ~ 1,524, ne ~ 1,495 (for red light).
high birefringence, about 0,021-0,029.

Peculiarities of chemical composition

Besides the basic elements of formular (cm. formula), as isomorphous impurity comprises K, sometimes Ba, H2O (the last character is a zeolite) etc.

chevkinite (chevkinit)

(This,The)4 (Fe2+,Mg)2(Ti,Fe3+)3 And4THE22

History of discovery

Chevkinite was first defined and named by Gustav Rose in 1839 year (pink, 1839) in the material, he had received from the K. AND. Lysenko. According to the analysis of mineral it proved difficult titanosilicate rare earths cerium subgroup and iron. Initially, specific sampling in Ilmen mountains was not known and was considered extremely rare mineral. Subsequently, several objects were found, in which it occurs (in particular mines № 17, 183 etc.).

Nomenclature mineral

Chevkinite as a mineral species
In mineralogy system chevkinite belongs to a class of silicates, Classification A. WITH. cookery (1966): subclass – island, the Department – Couples with isolated Si tetrahedrons2THE7 (diortosilikaty), subdivision – with additional anions or radicals, perrerita group. Mineral refers to monoklinnooy syngony, space group C2 / m.

crystal structure

Crystal structure chevkinite considered similar structure with some differences perrerita. In general, it can be described as follows:. The basis structure comprise TiO6-octahedra, that, connecting ribs, form chains, elongated in the direction of the axis b, wherein the two types of chains (Fig.1). Connecting vertices TiO6-these chains form octahedra layers, parallel planes c(001). groups, in its turn, are interconnected diortogruppami Si2THE7 and Fe2+THE6-octahedra (last link diortogruppy Si2THE7 adjacent layers). Ce atoms (The, Th et al.) located in “cavities” between TiO6-octahedrons and Si diortogruppami2THE7. Unlike the chevkinite and perrerita structure is in a different position diortogrupp Si2THE7 with respect to the chains TiO6-octahedra: y chevkinite passes along these chains helical twofold axis, and at perrerita – simple twofold axis turning.

rice. 1. Structure chevkynyta (minerals, 1972)

1 – The projection onto the plane (001), a profile Ti-octahedra layers visible, parallel (001). 2 – structure element: Ti-chain octahedra, elongated along axis b, with attached thereto diorto Si-groups2THE7

morphology

form finding
a rare mineral. Despite, chevkinite that was opened in the first half of the 19th century, Ilmenite in its crystals were found only in the 20 th century. Prior to that, he had met as a grain of irregular shape and dense pieces of different sizes (Fig.1). crystals, usually, flattened by a (from the plate to tolstotablitchatyh) and elongated in the direction b. The faceted Ilmen installed about chevkinite 15 forms (Kryzhanovsky, 1949), All in all, chevkinite (taking into account other fields) we know more 20 forms. Common counterparts on c (Fig.2).

Fig.1. chevkinite . Feldspar crystals in pegmatite. Moose. Countdown. №7324. Fig.2. chevkinite . Feldspar crystals in pegmatite. Moose. Countdown. №7880.

The main physical characteristics

Specific gravity: 4,4-4.9 g / cm3.
Hardness: on a ten Mohs 5-6 (by (Kryzhanovsky, 1949) – 5,5); mikrotvërdostʹ 760 kg / mm2.
izlom: uneven to conchoidal, hrupok, cpaynost imperfect by (001) or missing.
Color: pitch-black, velvety-black to dark brown.
feature: from brownish black to light brown.
shine: strong, by smolyanogo to almazovidnogo.
Opaque or slaboprozrachen: slightly translucent in thin breaks on the edges of a reddish-brown color. The transmitted light (Kryzhanovsky, 1949) slightly transparent, dark- reddish-brown to yellowish-red, Nm = 1,88–1,97, birefringence = 0.01-0.02, biaxial, negative.
radioactive: due to the presence of Th.

Peculiarities of chemical composition

mineral composition of a fairly complex. If it is represented as formula A4B2Ti3And4THE22 (where A – This, The, That, Th et al.; B – Fe2+, Mg and others.), it may be noted, Ti and Si that is relatively stable position: Ti in position sometimes appears in appreciable quantities Fe2+, and Si position – Al. In positions A and B are oscillations element content, And A position is considered open: yet known chevkinite with Ce predominance in this position (These include the Ilmen), ie. it chevkinit-(This), It does not exclude the prevalence in the position of the other elements. Of the other elements in position A (in appreciable amounts) chronically Ca, Th, rare earth elements (The, Nd i dr.). position B – is the position of divalent cations, usually Fe2+ and Mg, sometimes present Mn, etc..

Khiolit (chiolite)

Na5Al3F14

History of discovery

AT 1845 year in the development of topaz mine (now number 69) It was greeted with a diameter of about nest 1 m, sloƶennoe kriolitom (ice stone) and then the unknown mineral, like, in dense clusters, on lumps of snow. Hence the name, derived from the Greek “snow stone”. As a new mineral and is described by Hermann Auerbach (Hermann, Auerbach, 1846), determine its composition. Crystallographic studies conducted H. AND. Koksharov later.

Nomenclature mineral

Chiolite as a mineral species
In mineralogy system chiolite belongs to a class of fluorides, Classification A. WITH. cookery (1966): subclass – complex. It refers to the tetragonal system, type symmetry P4 / mnc.

crystal structure

The basis structure are AlF6-octahedra, which form the layers parallel to the axis c, connecting at the same time with neighboring octahedra: one third – four vertices, and two thirds – only two. Adjacent layers are shifted relative to each other on a diagonal half of the diagonals (Fig.1). One fifth of Na atoms are arranged in layers of large voids, and four-fifths – between layers in eightfold coordination.

Structure hyolyta (of Minerals, 1963)

The voids, educated AlF6-octahedra within a layer, Na located (Na, located between the layers is not shown).

morphology

form finding
The mineral is very rare, Ilmenite is known in only one copy (№ 69). It forms a fine-grained aggregates and solid dense masses. Crystals dipiramidalnogo appearance (rice. 1), the main form – dipiramida o{111}, to varying degrees blunted dipyramid n{012} and very dull ditetragonalnoy dipyramid z, whose characters are not identified due to the curved edges (rice. 2), also marked pinacoid c{110}. Uncommon for twins (111).

Fig.1. Imperfect crystal hyolithid

Fig.2. crystals (1,2) and twin (3) hiolita
Facets of forms: Facets of forms: The{111}, n{102}, with{hhl}

The main physical characteristics

Density: measured – 2,13 g / cm3; calculated – 2,14 g / cm3.
Specific gravity: 2,995-3.005 g / cm3.
Hardness: on a ten Mohs 3.5-4.
izlom: conchoidal, Cleavage is perfect for {001}.
Color: colorless, in granular clusters of white.
shine on a break glass, on the cleavage planes – pearlescent.
transparent, a single-axis thin sections, negative, extinction relatively direct cleavage, No = 1,3486, do = 1,3424, No-Ne = 0,0062.

Peculiarities of chemical composition

Composition hyolithid close to stoichiometric, theoretical (in lard.%): na = 24,88, Al = 17,53, F = 57,59. There were minor impurity K, That, Mg.

Samarskit-(Y) (samarskite-(Y))

(Y,This,The)(Fe2+,Fe3+)(Nb,Ta,Ti) 2THE8

History of discovery

For the first time mineral called “uranotantal” Gustav Rose has been described in the material, he had received from the P. AND. Evreinova (by (Barsanov, 1949)). Further studies of the composition of the mineral, conducted by Henry Rose (brother Gustave Roze) on the material, obtained from B. E. Samara (again on (Barsanov, 1949)), show, that this is not the mineral tantalum, and he is a niobate of uranium and other elements. ie. logically it must be named “uranoniobatom”, but not “uranotantalom”. but the term “niobate” at that time it has already been used (subsequently discredited), so Heinrich Rose suggested name for this mineral “samarskite”, in honor of the Chief of Staff of the Corps of Mining Engineers in. E. Samara.

Nomenclature mineral

The Samara as a mineral species
In mineralogy system samarskite relates to a class of oxides, Classification A. WITH. cookery (1966): subclass – chain, the Department – complex, group wolframite, columbite. Natural samarskite rentgenamorfen, after calcination shows monoclinic, psevdorombicheskuyu structure, external crystal faceting similar to columbite (rhombic). View symmetry, according to the latest data, P21/c.

crystal structure

The crystal structure of the calcined samarskite quite complicated and more or less thoroughly studied relatively recently [Am.Min., 1993]. in general terms it is similar to the structure of columbite and wolframite (Fig.1). If the formula is seen as wolframite ABO4 (where A – Mn or Fe, B – W), samarskite the formula is discussed in a A2B2O8 (ie. as it were doubled), wherein A at position elements are divided into two groups, A conventionally A` and, where A – Y, This, The; A` – Fe2 +, Fe3 +; B – Nb, Ta, Ti. In other words, Fe2 + and Fe3 + in a separate group, settling nevertheless at position A. In general, columbite and wolframite structure is described as follows:: zigzag chains consist of several distorted octahedra AO6 and BO6, interconnected by common edges, wherein the chains consist of only one type of octahedra. These chains are oriented parallel to the axis. Rows chains of one type of form layers (A-layers and B layers). Within a layer the chain are not connected to each other, but connected to the chains adjacent layer – vertices of the octahedra.

morphology

form finding
a rare mineral, It occurs as rounded, slightly elongated grains or crystals, usually imperfect (Fig.1). The surface is usually covered with a reddish-brown crust changes products. Total (around the world) faceted crystals found in 12 forms, in Ilmen samarskite – substantially less. Crystal habit is short-and close to the tabular (by {100}). Doubles are not observed, but characterized by targeted fusion with columbite (Fig.2), There were also a fusion of ilmenite, fergusonite, monazite.

Fig.1. Crystal corundum-feldspar pegmatite. Moose. Countdown. №7379.

Fig.2. Chipped feldspar crystals in (visible high gloss). Moose. Countdown. №6506.

Crystal in feldspar. Moose. Countdown. №6707.

The main physical characteristics

Specific gravity (Barsanov, 1949): from 5,31 to 6,04 g / cm3, is one definition 5,037. The specific weight is strongly dependent on the composition of, mainly – from U content.
Hardness: on a ten Mohs 5.5-6; microhardness on different data 612-897 kg / mm2.
izlom: melkorakovisty, cleavage in Ilmensky samarskite invisible, samarskite in other fields sometimes fixed for {100} as a very imperfect.
Color: pitch-black, velvety-black.
feature: reddish-brown to brown.
shine: strong on the break glass, smolyanistыy to polumetalicheskogo.
opaque: sometimes slightly translucent reddish-brown color in thin breaks at the edges. The transmitted light (in thin sections) reddish-brown, isotropic (due metamict, apparently), a refractive index of more than 2,0. In reflected light the color of cream and gray to creamy-white, the reflectivity of the good, comparable with ilmenite (absolute for different wavelengths: from 15,0 for 700 millimicron, to 22,7 for 470 millimicron), isotropic, internal reflections of reddish-brown, clearly visible in immersion.
radioactive: due to the high content of uranium.

Peculiarities of chemical composition

The composition of the complex, varies considerably. Currently A position is considered open, ie. bye bye known samarskite with a predominance of Y and nomenclature they are called samarskit-(Y) (these include Ilmensky samarskite), but it is possible to find in nature samarskite, in which the other element will prevail. In position A, usually, high levels of U, and Fe2 + and Fe3 + ions, that some researchers are allocated to a separate group. In position B Nb Ta greatly dominates, Ti content is usually low.

Fergusonit-(This)-b (fergusonite-(This)-b)

(This,Y)NbO4, city. fergusonita

History of discovery

found in 1960 g. the copy № 13 territory of Ilmen Reserve ("Kop rohovoy trompe l'oeil"), Ilmen mountains, South. Ural. Mine was included in the 1826 g. P. n. Barbot de Marni and reveals the body, consisting mainly of giant crystals edenite and comprising at selvages phlogopite, quartz, feldspar, actinolite. Fergusonit-(This)-β associated with apatite, zircons, titanit, monacitom-(This), rutile.

described B. BUT. Makarochkin called "fergusonite cerium" (Makarochkin et al., 1965).

Nomenclature mineral

According to the modern nomenclature is cerium analogue fergusonita-(Y)-b, described previously in Siberia.

Title: Ce-dominant analogue fergusonita-β-(Y).


morphology

Fergusonit-(This)-β forms a brown-gray and dark-gray crystals were flattened dipiramidalnye to 15 × 8 mm, their intergrowths weight up 8 g, grains.

The main physical characteristics

Specific gravity: 5.34-5.44 g / cm3.
Hardness: on a ten Mohs 5.5-6.5.
Color: brown-gray, dark grey.

crystal

structure

Morphology crystals meet tetragonal symmetry; mineral metamict, but after calcination gives an X-β monoclinic fergusonita (Makarochkin et al., 1965).

literature

B Makarochkyn. BUT., Mineev D. BUT., In Aleksandrov. B. About cerium species fergusonita // New Data on Minerals of the USSR. Tr. mineralogical Museum. 1965. MY. 16. WITH. 252–258.

S Kobyashev. WITH., Nikandr. n. minerals of the Urals (mineral species and varieties). Yekaterinburg: Publ SQUARE, 2007. 312 with.

I Pekov. V. Minerals First Discovered on the Territory of the Former Soviet Union. Moscow, ON, 1998. 369 p.

Ushkova (ushkovite)

MgFe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 . 8H2THE

History of discovery

Ushkova found B. AT. Chesnokov in 1979 year in the vein of granite pegmatite mines number 232 Ilmen reserve. Ushkova along with other phosphates is a part triplita modify products, forming a slot near the quartz core nucleus. It also found Kalugin and Matveeva. Named in honor of Professor Sergei L. Ushkova, scientist – naturalysta, researcher of the nature reserve Ilmensky.

Nomenclature mineral

Ushkova as a mineral species
In mineralogy system Ushkova belongs to a class of phosphates, by (Fleymer, 1990) - Group paravoksita, Classification A. WITH. cookery (1966): subclass – chain, the Department – water with additional anions, Group – klinovoksita-lauэita, subgroup – lauéita. Mineral refers to the triclinic crystal system, space group P or P11.

crystal structure

For proper ushkovita not investigated, but (Tchesnokov et al., 1983) it sochton isostructural basic aqueous phosphate (lauéitu, gordonitu, paravoksitu, sigloitu). Structure in lauэyta (cookery, 1966) described as follows: (rice. 1). The chemical formula of (Fleymer, 1990) Mn2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2.8H2THE, crystal-on (cookery, 1966) Mn(H2THE)4{Fe2(H2THE)2[PO4]2(OH)2}.2H2THE. The main elements of the structure are laueita Fe-octahedra, Mn-P-octahedrons and tetrahedrons. Fe-octahedra, associated with each other OH-vertices, form chains, oriented along the c axis. After O-vertex Fe-P-octahedra by further tetrahedra linked in chains, as well as Fe-octahedra adjacent chains, forming layers form {Fe2(H2THE)2[PO4]2 (OH)2}2 – (crystal-see formula), parallel to the (010). In this case, one vertex of each P-tetrahedron (oxygen) focused “out” such a layer. Through this top layers communicate with each other through Mn-octahedra, in which two opposite vertices are O-vertices, in common with O-P-tetrahedron vertices adjacent layers. Four other Mn-octahedron vertices are not connected and busy molecules H2THE (crystal-see formula). Two molecules remaining H2O are located in the cavities have a zeolite structure and nature. Ushkovita structure is of the same type, Only Fe-P-layers do not bind Mn-octahedra (laueit), a Mg-octahedron (Ushkova).

rice .1. Structure lauэyta (by Povarennykh, 1966):

but – projection onto a plane (001), wherein the layer structure is visible [Fe2(H2THE)2(PO4)2(OH2)2]2- parallel to the plane (010);

b – projection onto a plane (100), chains showing the structure of Fe-P-octahedrons and tetrahedrons, members of the layers. In the structure ushkovita place occupy octahedral Mn-Mg-octahedra.

morphology

form finding
Forms crystals and aggregates of crystals (to 2 mm) on the walls of the cavities in an altered triple or change its products. Marked radial aggregates. Many crystals are split in the direction [001], but frequent and plane-crystals. The appearance of the crystals is short- [001], isometric, sometimes slightly flattened at [001] (rice 1.). The faceted found 7 forms. crystallographic constants:a : b : c = 0,488 : 1 : 0,661; alpha = 107about42`, beta = 110about26`, gamma = 72about35`.

Fig.1. crystals ushkovita.

Facets of forms: c{001}, b{010}, a{100}, m{110}, M{110}

The main physical characteristics

Density: measured – 2,38 g / cm3, calculated – 2,4 g / cm3.
Hardness: on a ten Mohs 3,5.
izlom: Cleavage is perfect for {010}, fragile.
Color: from light yellow to orange-yellow or light-brown.
feature: bright, yellowish.
shine: by the glass (on the verge of) to pearl (of spaynosti) and zhirnovat (the izlom).
transparent: sometimes turbid. In the transmitted light slightly yellowish;
biaxial, 2V about 50about, Strong dispersion of the optic axes (r>v);
of = 1,670; Nm = 1,637; Np = 1,584; Of-Np = 0,086; = angle sNg 26about; Ng Nm and are substantially parallel {010}.
additional characteristics: legkoplavok, is fused into the magnetic bead black. In a closed tube when heated releases a lot of water.

Peculiarities of chemical composition

According to the different types of tests as part of ushkovita, besides main Fe, Mg and P installed impurity elements Mn, That, Al.

Svyazhina (svyazhinite)

(Mg,Mn2+)(Al,Fe3+)(SO4)2F . 14H2THE

History of discovery

The mineral is found B. AT. Chesnokov in 1981 year old crushed stone quarry Mr.. Miass, Located near the cordon “Black River” Ilmen reserve – western slope Ilmeny. It is a mineral in the fracture, dissecting pyroxene-amphibole fenites, enriched with pyrite and fluorite. Named in honor of the Ural mineralogist Svyazhina Nikolai, studied the complex mineralogy alkali wintergreen and in the Ural Mountains Ilmen. Svyazhina is a typical product pyrite supergene- and flyuoritsoderzhaschih alkaline rocks Ilmeny.

Nomenclature mineral

Monazite as a mineral species
In mineralogy system Svyazhina relates to a class of sulfates, and a complex aqueous fluoro-Mg sulfate, Mn, Al, Fe. By (Tchesnokov et al., 1984) It is is close to obertitu: Which(SO4)2Cl . 14H2THE. It refers to the triclinic system, space group P1 or P1 (obertyta in P1).

crystal structure

I have not been studied.

morphology

form finding
Found in the intersecting fracture as yellowish cavernous lumps to 2-3 cm in diameter. The internal part of the fine-grained lumps, and act on the surface of the fan-shaped bundle of plate crystals less thick 0,1 mm, across to 0,3-0,5 mm (rarely up 1 mm). crystals (Fig.1) flattened by (014) and have a tabular form. The faceted found 10 forms. crystallographic constants: a : b : c = 2 ,126 : 1 : 2,111; alpha = 90about, beta = 94about, gamma = 82about. The immersion preparations met counterparts at (014).

Fig.1. crystal svyazhinita (custom installation).
Facets of forms: a{100}, b{010}, m{110}, d{210}, e{410}, f{014}

The main physical characteristics

Density: measured – 1,67 g / cm3, calculated – 1,69 g / cm3.
Hardness: on a ten Mohs 2.
Cleavage: by {010} – medium.
Color: colorless crystals; aggregates of yellowish-white, yellow with pink tinge.
feature: white.
shine: glass.
transparent: transmitted light colorless, biaxial, negative, small angle 2V (calculated = 50about). of = 1,444; Nm = 1,439; Np = 1,423; Of-Np = 0,021. Ng-Np plane close to (014), Nm is close to the surface normal (014).
additional characteristics: legkoplavok, readily soluble in cold water. Taste is burning-astringent, solonovatыy.

Peculiarities of chemical composition

In addition to the elements, included in the formula, svyazhinita composed in minor amounts set K, Na, That.

Makarochkin (makarochkinite)

(That,Na)2(Fe2+,Fe3+,Ti4+,Mg)6(And,Be,Al)6THE20

History of discovery

The mineral was first recorded in the collection of samples B. BUT. Makarochkin as an accessory and previously diagnosed as spinel. Further his studies in samples, selected from pegmatite vein imaging № 400 Ilmen reserve, allowed to install, that this new mineral, calcium berrilosilikat, sodium, gland, titanium, magnesium. Named for Boris Alexandrovich Makarochkin, geologist – mineralogist, I worked for many years in the Ilmen Reserve.

Makarochkin as a mineral species

In mineralogy system Makarochkin belongs to a class of silicates, subclass – chain, aenigmatite group (Polyakov et al., 1986). Mineral refers to the triclinic crystal system, space group P1.

crystal structure

For proper makarochkinita has not been studied, but it is known and is described for aenigmatite (minerals, 1981) in the following way. The structure consists of two kinds of two-dimensional layers, they are parallel (100) and alternate in a direction of the axis. One layer is formed FeO6– and TiO6-tetrahedra and distorted antiprism Na (Fig.1), and the second layer is formed piroksenopodobnymi chain [And6THE18], connected by FeO6-octahedra. In these piroksenopodobnyh chains for every four SiO4-tetrahedron have two additional SiO4-tyetraedra, who have shared vertices with two neighboring tetrahedra chain.

rice. 1. Struktura enigmatita (minerals, 1981)

morphology

form finding
Makarochkin forms a single crystal isolation, in form similar to the isometric, in the feldspar. The sizes of these discharges reach 50 mm. Sometimes seen one or two rough verge.

The main physical characteristics

Density: measured – 3,87 g / cm3, calculated – 3,88 g / cm3.
Hardness: on a ten Mohs – 5,5–6; fragile.
izlom: conchoidal, cleavage of flawed {110}.
Color: the black, in thin breaks on the edges of translucent green.
feature: greenish-black.
shine: glass.
optical behavior: shines, Transmitted light (in immersion preparations) It has green color, weakly pleochroic, in crossed Nicols is not extinguished, and changes color from green to red-brown. optically biaxial; of = 1,860, Np = 1,799.

Peculiarities of chemical composition

Besides the basic elements of formular: (That, Na, Fe, Ti, Mg, And, Be, Al) in minor amounts set K (referenced to the position of Ca – Na) и Mn (referenced to the position Fe – Ti – Mg). An empirical formula is as follows::

(That2,09Na0,36K0,03)2,5(Fe2+3,29Fe3+1,22Ti0,66Mn0,08Mg0,3)5,55THE2× ×[(And4,39Be0,81Al0,61)5,81THE18]

Polyakovit-(is) (polyakovite-(This))

(This,That)4MgCr2(Ti,Nb)2And4THE22

History of discovery

For the first time polyakovit-(is) was found in the mine dumps number 97 Ilmen reserve territory in 1976 year and described in 1986 , entitled "Chromium and Magnesium analogue chevkinite" (Zhdanov et al., 1986). It was introduced in KNMNM MMA for certification, but due to lack of data it was not approved. Nonetheless, As a result of 90 years of the additional exploration of the mineral, prepared additional data, which allowed to present it again in MMA and 1998 , the mineral was approved under the name polyakovit-(is). Description of the mineral is contained in (Popov and others., 2000; Popov et al., 2001). In the register of MMA 2019 , he appears under this name in the status of "A" (approved). Named in memory of Vladislav Polyakov O. (1950–1993), Russian mineralogist, all his life studying Ilmeny (He described 43 new territory for the mineral reserve Ilmensky).

Polyakovit-(is) in mineralogy system

Polyakovit-(is) rentgenamorfen, during calcination at a temperature 830 ° C exotherm was evident (Recalescence). To the calcined material obtained radiograph, close to the X-ray synthetic chevkinite. Based on this polyakovit-(is) assigned to group chevkinite (Popov and others., 2000). This group, except chevkinite, perrerit also includes a number of other titanosilicates. Therefore, in different directories it is called differently: in some, it is a "group perrerita", in others - the "group chevkinite". In mineralogy system, Classification A. WITH. cookery (cookery, 1966), perrerita group minerals belong to the class III - silicates (borosilicates, aluminosilicates and others.); subclass 3 - island silicates; Division B - with isolated pairs of tetrahedra Si2THE7 (diortosilikaty); subsection II - with additional anions or radicals; perrerita group.

crystal structure

The handbook "Minerals" (1972) general structural formula is represented as A4me3(TiO4)2(And2THE7)2, Where: А = REE (TR), Th, That; Me = Fe2+, Fe3+, Mg, Mn, Al (in Polyakov - Cr); in position TiO4 possible occurrence of Nb and Fe3+.The basis of the crystal structure comprise Ti-octahedra, that, connecting via common edges, form chains. These chains are connected through common vertices, thereby forming a layer. In turn, bind the layers by diortogrupp Si2THE7 and Me-octahedra. large cations (A position) located in the cavities between the octahedra and diortogruppami (rice. 1).

rice. 1. Structure perreryta (minerals, 1972).

1 - This, 2 – TiO4-octahedra, 3 - Ugly6-octahedra, 4 - group Si2THE7.

morphology

It is in the form of grains xenomorphic, inclusions and aggregates of irregular shape among phlogopiteftorrihteritovyh units carbonatite core. The magnitude of individuals reach 0.5-3 cm, some are fragmentary faceting, at 2019 was found partially faceted crystal size 16 cm. Goniometric measurements are summarized in the form of an idealized image of monoclinic crystal tolstotablitchatogo (rice. 2). form the habit: a{100}, c{001}, t{201}, m{110}, The{111}.rice. 2. Idealized crystal polyakovita-(This.

The main physical characteristics

Density: 4.75 g / cm3 (measured).
Color: the black, in thin splinters brown.
color features: brown.
shine: smolyanoy.
izlom: conchoidal.
Hardness: 6 (Mohs).
optical properties: immersion in the isotropic, n ~ 1.93, reflected light is uniform, gray, low reflection. After calcining for 3 hours at a temperature 1000 ° C mineral becomes anisotropic with pleochroism from dark brown (of) to brown (For example,), ng = 1.95, np = 1.94.

Peculiarities of chemical composition

On the basis of tests, chemical (analysis 1) and microprobe (analysis 2), empirical formula calculated polyakovita-(is), calculation of O = 22.
Analysis 1:
[(This2.06The1.22Nd.37Pr.14Sm.03Y.04)3.86Th.12]3.98(Cr1.28Mg.89Fe2+.61That.32Fe3+.18)3.28× ×(Ti1.57Nb.22Fe3+.21)2.0And3.97THE22].
Analysis 2:
[(This2.03The1.40Nd.42Pr.16Y.04)4.05Th.14]4.19(Cr1.30Mg.62Fe2+.49Fe3+.32That.22)2.95(Ti1.56Nb.45)2.0And3.90THE22].
Noteworthy appreciable content in Ti-Nb octahedron, as well as increased content of La in the position of large cations.

literature

Zhdanov. F., Bazhenova L. F., Polyakov. ABOUT. Chromium and Magnesium analogue chevkinite // New and lesser known minerals and mineral associations of the Urals. Sverdlovsk: UC USSR Academy of Sciences, 1986. WITH. 110–111.
In Popov. BUT., Pautov L. BUT., In Popov. AND. Polyakov - a new mineral: result doyzuchenyya chrome-mahnyevoho chevkynyta // Ural mineral. Sborno. № 10. Miass: Yimin UB RAS, 2000. WITH. 3–10.
popov V. A., Pautov L. A., Sokolova E. V., Hawthorne F. C., Mc Cammon C., Bazhenova L. F. Polyakovite-(This), (REE,That)4(Mg,Fe2 +)(Cr3+,Fe3+)2(Ti,Nb)2-Si4O22 – a new metamict mineral species from the Ilmen Mountains, Southern Urals, Russia // Can. Miner. 2001. V. 39. № 4. P. 1095–1104.
A recipe. WITH. Crystal-classification of mineral species. Kiev: Scientific thought, 1966. 547 with.
minerals: Directory. M.: science, 1972. T. 3. MY. 1. WITH. 776–792 (Structure type perrerita).

Ftorrihterit (fluoro-richterite)

Na2That(Mg,Fe)5[And8THE22](F,OH)2

History of discovery

It described as a rock-forming mineral and Ilmen of hot Vishnyevye, YU. Ural. The Ilmen mountains found in two locations: in fenite zone in crushed stone quarry on the western slope of the Ilmen Mts. (found in 1976 city), as well as in the imaging № 97 composed apogiperazitovyh alkaline metasomatic. The Cherry Mountain mineral Buldym array found in carbonatites in 1988 g. (Bajenov et al., 1993). Thus mineral has three points type locality.

Named in accordance with the MMA as a dominant-fluoro analog richterite. Approved KNMNM MMA 29 August 1992 , entitled «fluorrichterite» (ftorrihterit). In the register of MMA 2019 year appears under the title "fluorо-Richterite"The status« Rd » (reimplemented).

morphology

In fenites Ilmeny is in the form of grains to 2 mm with microcline, albite, phlogopite. In apogiperazitovyh alkali metasomatites Ilmeny and carbonatites Buldym array forms a pale green prisms length 10 cm and is associated with calcite, phlogopite, magnetite, pyrochlore, apatite and other minerals. Crystals prismatic ftorrihterita, elongated along an axis with[001], well developed facets but(100) and b(010), rarer m(110).

The main physical characteristics

Density: 3.174 g / cm3 (of fenites), 2.974 g / cm3 (of carbonatite), 3.035 (synthetic).
Color: light green and blue-green, white line.
shine: glass.
Hardness: 5–6 (Mohs), hrupok.
izlom: splintery.
optical properties: in joint transparent, biaxial, optical negative, positive elongation. The angle of optical axes 2V = 71-72 °. index of refraction: ng = 1.627–1.629; nm = 1.621; np = 1.612–1.618. сng =18–26°. Very pleochroic: by Np - light brown to colorless, by Nm - brownish-green (sometimes lilac), by Ng - bluish-green. Driving pleochroism: of > Nm > For example,.

Peculiarities of chemical composition

The cationic portion of the formula substantially corresponds to the normal richterite, indicated an increased content of Fe3+ in C (0.34CYP -0.51), and K in position A (0.20CYP -0.32). The anionic fluorine content item: in fenite - 1.12 KF, carbonate - 1.15 KF, in apogiperazitovom alkaline metasomatite - 1.50 Cand.

literature

A Bazhenov. G., And Nedosekova. L., E Petersen. IN. Ftorrihterit Na2That(Mg,Fe)5[And8THE22](F,OH)2 - a new mineral in the amphibole group // Zap. WMO. 1993. BUT. 122. AT. 3. WITH. 98–102.

Magnezioftorarfvedsonit (magnesium-fluoro-Arfvedsonite)

NaNa2[Mg4Fe3+]5And8THE22F2

History of discovery

Installed in albite-microcline fenites Western exocontact Ilmensky alkaline massif in the new ballast quarry (neighborhood of z. Miass). First described in (Bazhenov, 1992) called "ftormagnezioarfvedsonit". For certification in KNMNM MMA is not presented, Although the registry minerals MMA he was absent. Later the same amphibole was found in phlogopite-amphibole metaultramafics (mine number 97), and Cherry Mountain, where he composes phlogopite-amphibole rocks, which form a rim carbonatitic lived, dissecting Buldym serpentine array. Based upon the materials KNMNM MMA approved as a new mineral called «fluormagnesioarfvedsonite» (ftormagnezioarfvedsonit) 5 January 1999 of the year. Full description of it is given in (Bajenov et al., 2000). Thus, mineral has three points type locality.

Nomenclature mineral

The name was given in accordance with the force at the time of amphibole nomenclature (Leake and al., 1997), As domynantnomu fluoro-analogue mahnezyoarfvedsonyta. However, 2012 year as a result of the adoption of the new nomenclature of amphiboles, acting today, mineral renamed "magnesium-fluoro-Arfvedsonite» (magnezioftorarfvedsonit). Under this name he appears in the register of MMA (IMA) 2019 at «Rd» Status (reimplemented).

morphology

In fenites Ilmeny is in the form of fine grains is short-together with microcline, albite, phlogopite, sometimes quartz; Accessory minerals -titanit, apatite, rutile, pyrite. The rim carbonatite Buldym array forms prisms length 10 cm and shapeless grains, associated with phlogopite, magnetite, pyrochlore, apatite and other minerals.

The main physical characteristics

Density: 3.09-3.14 g / cm3 (of fenites).
Color: pale bluish gray with a blue hue.
optical properties: in joint transparent, refractive indices: ng = 1.632; nm = 1.629; np = 1.618. 2V = 50-70 °, сng = 15–16°. pleochroism: along with - greenish-blue, along b - sirenevatыy, across the plane bc - yellowish, nearly colorless. absorption scheme with = b >bc.

Peculiarities of chemical composition

The cationic portion of the formula substantially corresponds to the normal richterite, notes reduced compared with standard (= 1.0 KF) the content of Fe3+ in position WITH and an increased content of Ca in the position AT (to 0.50 KF, normative 0.0 KF), that brings him to ftororihteritom.

literature

A Bazhenov. D. The finding ftormagnezioarfvedsonita in fenites Ilmenogorsky alkaline complex and the problem arfvedsonite, glaucophane, riebeckite Ilmeny complex in alkaline hot-Vishnyevye // Minerals and mineral raw materials of the Urals. Yekaterinburg: UB RAS, 1992. WITH. 26–32.

A Bazhenov. G., And Nedosekova. L., Krinova T. AT., But Mironov. B., Hvorov M. AT. Ftormagnezioarfvedsonit NaNa2(Mg,Fe2+)4Fe3+[And8THE22](F,OH)2 - a new mineral species in the amphibole group (alkaline complex Ilmeny hot-Vishnyevye, Southern Urals) // Zap. WMO. 2000. BUT. 129. № 6. WITH. 28–35.

Leake B. E. et al. Nomenclature of amohiboles: report of the Subcommittee an amphiboles of the International Mineralogical Association, Commission on new minerals and mineral names // Can. Miner. 1997. V. 35. P. 219–246.

Ferrivinchit (grilled-winchite)
Ncng4Fe3+[And8THE22](OH,F)2

History of discovery

Amphibole with the same name and the corresponding compound first described in 1982 year (Bajenov et al., 1982). For certification it does not represent, Although the registry minerals MMA he was absent. In the nomenclature of amphiboles 1997 of the year, MMA recommended for use, vinchita series is represented by two end members, characterized by a predominance of Fe Al3+ among type cation "M" position WITH amphibole structure (Leake et al., 1997). Beginning with 1998 years a number of studies have repeatedly shown, vinchita that the series should contain another two end members, with a predominance of Fe3+ over Al. It is on this basis is described in 1982 amphibole year titled "ferrivinchit" entered in inventories Ilmeny minerals and Urals with reference to this first description (Valizer and others., 2004; Kobyashev et al., 2000; Kobyashev et al., 2007; Nikandrov et al., 2000). Finally, almost through 20 years after the first description, at the beginning of the XXI century, mineral was introduced to MMA for certification and was approved 10 December 2004 of the year. In the register of MMA 2019 year appears under the title "grilled-winchite» (ferrivinchit) the status «Rd» (reimplemented).

Type locality mineral - fenites Central alkaline strip in the middle of the Ilmen Reserve, 1 km east of the cordon "Selyankinsky". He located in late veinlets intersecting.

morphology

He located in late veinlets intersecting, where it forms a thin rims on prismatic acicular crystals, "glandular vinchita", and its closure tonkoigolchatye split crystals (Bajenov et al., 2005).

The main physical characteristics

Density: 3.13 g / cm3.
Color: macroscopically black, powder greenish gray.
shine: glass.
izlom: splintery.
optical properties: in joint transparent. The refractive indices: ng = 1.687; np = 1.675. of = b. strong pleochroism: along with - blue, along b - lilac, across the plane bc - light brownish-yellow.
absorption scheme with = b >bc.

Peculiarities of chemical composition

Composition ferrivinchita close to ideal, indicated an increased content of Fe2+ in position WITH ~ 0.85 Cand. (uncritically).

literature

A Bazhenov. G., Kutepova L. BUT., Well Shterbakova. P. By taxonomy amphibole Ilmenogorsky complex // Mineralogical studies of endogenous deposits of the Urals. Sverdlovsk: UC USSR Academy of Sciences, 1982. WITH. 78–92.

A Bazhenov. G., Mironov. B., Muftaxov B. BUT., Hvorov P. AT. Ferrivinchit NaCaMg4Fe3+[And8THE22](OH,F)2, - a new mineral of the amphibole group (Ilmenogorsky alkaline complex, Southern Urals) // Zap. RMO. 2005. № 3. WITH. 74–77.

Kaliyferroferrisadanagait
(potassic-iron-grilled-sadanagaite)
KCA2(Fe2+3Fe3+2)(And5Al3)THE22(OH)2

History of discovery

Installed as part of the amphibole syenite in the contact zone Ilmensky alkaline massif (Ilmen reserve territory, Miass, YU. Ural). is a rock-forming, in species composition also includes plagioclase (№ 26–28), K-Na polevoy spar, nepheline, Garnet (hrossulyar-Andrade), accessory - apatite, titanate, allanite (Bajenov et al., 1999).

For the first time in kaliyferroferrisadanagait ilmenite described in (Bajenov et al., 1988) called "sadanagait". In one of the tests in the position BUT Na dominates over K (in lokatipe naoborot, K > Na), and other assays in position WITH among the cations of type "M» Fe3+ predominates over Al (in lokatipe and vice versa, Al > Fe3+). This was the basis for the isolation of two types of: "Natrosadanagaita" and "ferrianaloga sadanagaita" (Bazhenov, 1998). A detailed study allowed us to present the composition of amphibole (K,Na)That2(Fe2+,Mg)3(Fe3+,Al)2[And5Al3THE22](OH)2 for certification in KNMNM MMA, where he was confirmed as a new mineral species 11 November 1997 called "kalioferrisadanagait" (potassicferrisadanagaite) (Bajenov et al., 1999). In connection with the advent of 1997 , the new nomenclature of amphiboles (Leake et.al., 1997) this name has been finalized and titled "kaliysadanagait" he entered the inventory of minerals Ilmen and the Urals (Valizer and others., 2004; Kobyashev et al., 2000; Kobyashev et al., 2007; Nikandrov et al., 2000). AT 2012 MMA was changed some principles of nomenclature and taxonomy of amphibole and "kalioferrisadanagait" was again renamed. In the register of MMA 2019 year appears under the name «potassic-ferro-ferri-sadanagaite» (ie kaliyferroferrisadanagait) the status «Rd» (reimplemented).

morphology

In areas of fine grains is short-forming species with well-developed facets of prisms {110} and pinacoid {001}. In a more coarse size rocks to form poykilokristally 0.5 cm, and pegmatite areas - to 2 cm, they have solid outlines and contain rounded intergrowths of plagioclase and mikropertita.

The main physical characteristics

Density: 3.39-3.44 g / cm3.
Color: macroscopically black, It shines through only in thin edges chipped.
shine: glass.
izlom: uneven to conchoidal.
optical properties: transparent in thin sections and densely painted, biaxial. The angle of optical axes 2V = 42-50 °. index of refraction: ng = 1.709–1.715; nm not determined; np = 1.690–1.696. Very pleochroic: by Np - brownish-yellow, by Nm - brownish-green, by Ng - bluish-green. Scheme usual for absorption amphiboles: of > Nm > For example,.

Peculiarities of chemical composition

The number of Si close to the critical: 5.31-5.44 Cand. against 5.50 Cand. (close to the border with kaliygastingsitom); an increased amount of fluorine - 0.30-0.40 Cand.

literature

A Bazhenov. G., Bazhenova L. F., Krinova T. AT., Hvorov P. AT. Kaliyferrisadanagait (K,Na)That2(Fe2+,Mg)3(Fe3+,Al)2[And5Al3THE22](OH)2 - a new mineral species in the amphibole group (Ilmen mountains, YU. Ural) // Zap. WMO. 1999. BUT. 128. AT. 4. WITH. 50–55 (kaliyferrisadanagait).

A Bazhenov. G., Bazhenova L. F., Polyakov. ABOUT. Sadanagait of complex alkali Ilmeny // VMO. 1988. № 1. WITH. 74–78.

A Bazhenov. G., new amphibole, detected in alkaline complex after Ilmeny 1982 of the year // Mineralogy of the Urals. T. I. nauchn. ed.: Mater. III-rd regional. ings of the Conference. Miass: Yimin UB RAS, 1998. WITH. 22–24.

Polyakov. ABOUT., A Bazhenov. D. The first finding magneziosadanagaita in Russia // Ural. miner. Sat.. № 8. Miass: Yimin UB RAS. 1998. WITH. 249–251.

Hawthorne F. C. et al. Nomenclature of the amphibole supergroup // American Mineralogist. 2012. Vol. 97. 2031–2048.

Leake B. E. et al. Nomenclature of amohiboles: report of the Subcommittee an amphiboles of the International Mineralogical Association, Commission on new minerals and mineral names // Canad. Miner., 1997. V. 35. P. 219–246.

cadastre

  1. Valizer P. M., S Kobyashev. WITH., Nikandr. n. amphiboles Urals. Miass: IGZ UB RAS, 2004. 139 with.
  2. S Kobyashev. WITH., Nikandr. N., Valizer P. M. Minerals Ilmeny, 2000 g. Miass: IGZ UB RAS, 2000. 119 with.
  3. S Kobyashev. WITH., Nikandr. n. minerals of the Urals (mineral species and varieties). Yekaterinburg: ed. "Square", 2007. 312 with.
  4. Nikandr. N., S Kobyashev. WITH., Valizer P. M. Amphibole İlmenogorskogo complex. Miass: IGZ UB RAS, 2000. 120 with.

Kaliymagneziogastingsit
(potassic-magnesio-hastingsite)
KCA2(Mg4 Fe3+)5(And6Al2)8THE22(OH)2

History of discovery

Installed as part of biotite-amphibole gabbro "... in the serpentinite melange ... among gneiss lower part of the Proterozoic metamorphic rocks Ilmenogorsky complex ..." (Korinevskii et al., 2006). Type locality mineral: Aspen Cape on the eastern shore of Lake. big Ishkulov (Ilmen reserve territory, Miass, YU. Ural). Is a rock-forming in these rocks.

Named on similarity to magneziogastingsitom in accordance with nomenclature rules amphiboles. Is its analogue kaliydominantnym: y magneziogastingsita in positions A sodium potassium dominates, in kaliymagneziogastingsita contrary - prevails over the sodium potassium.

Approved KHM WMO and MMA (IMA) 5 September 2005 of the year, Registry MMA 2019 year figures in the «Rd» Status (reimplemented).

morphology

The main mineral of the amphibole, biotite-gabbro (30–54 % rock volume) It forms a "short-cut grains macroscopically black amphibole (5-20 mm in diameter)» (Korinevskii et al., 2006).

The main physical characteristics

Density: 3.02-3,25 g / cm3.
microhardness: 884-915 kg / mm2 (6.5 Mohs).
Color: almost black, cleavages in translucent brown-green.
optical properties: transparent, Transmitted light biaxial, negative, positive elongation, plane of the optical axes - (010). The angle of optical axes 2V = 58-88 °. index of refraction: A = 1.692 to 1.702; Nm = 1.685–1.695; Np = 1.676-1.682; Of-Np = 0.016 to 0.020. In thin sections amphibole densely colored and sharply pleochroic: by Np - bright brownish-green, by Nm - dark brown-green, by Ng - a very dark bluish-green. Scheme usual for absorption amphiboles: of > Nm >> For example,.

Peculiarities of chemical composition

Besides the basic elements of species-specific (cm. formula) installed as part of kaliymagneziogastingsita: the amount of sodium in the position BUT - to 0.47 Cand. (with potassium predominance); cation type number «L» (divalent) in position WITH significantly lower 4.0 Cand. at high Fe2+, ie. low amount of Mg. notes unseasoned, but the constant presence of BaO: 0.16-1.43 masses. %.

literature

In Korinevsky. G., Well Korinevskiy. AT. Kaliymagneziogastingsit (K,Na)That2(MgFe2+)4(Fe3+,Al,Ti)[And6Al2THE22](OH,Cl)2 - a new mineral species of amphibole // Notes RMI. 2006. № 2. WITH. 49–57.

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