South Urals Federal Research Center of Mineralogy and Geoecology of the Urals Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences

From the history of the Ilmen State Reserve

Ilmen State Reserve, located in the central part of Chelyabinsk region near the city of Miass.

История создания Ильменского заповедника

Over the years, it was visited by well-known German scientists, mineralogists and collectors: AND. Money, BUT. Humboldt, D. pink, academics worked H. AND. Koksharov, P. In Eremeev, BUT. P. Karpinski, D. WITH. Belyankin, AT. AND. Vernadsky, BUT. n. Zavaritskii, BUT. E. Fersman and many others.

Beginning zapovedovaniya Ilmeny can be considered 1912 year, when at the request of Academician. AND. Vernadsky Ilmen Mountains in the Urals have been declared forbidden for private mining is.

after 5 s Head Mountain Supreme Economic Council of the RSFSR N management. M. Fedorov in 1919 g. at the session of the Supreme Economic Council NTO has made a report on the scientific significance of the Ilmen mountains in the Urals and the need to declare a national park Ilmeny by type Yellowstone National Park, USA with a view to a total ban of mining and saving quite exceptional in its richness and diversity of the natural mineralogical museum.

Officially organized Ilmen Reserve 14 May 1920 of the year, when VI. Lenin signed a decree declaring the RSFSR SNK southern Ilmeny mineralogical reserve:

"In view of the exceptional scientific value Ilmen mountains in the southern Urals in the Miass River and to escort them to the natural mineral riches Council of People's Commissars resolves: to grant the right to the People's Commissariat for Education in coordination with the Mining Council of the Supreme Economic Council to declare certain sections of the Ilmen Mountains in the southern Urals in Miass State mineralogical reserve, that is, a national treasure, intended exclusively for scientific and technical problems of the country. The use of the reserve for practical purposes is permitted only with the permission of the Council of People's Commissars "

AT 1924 year, 7 January, Central Executive Committee and SNK RSFSR issued a decree on the accounting and protection of art monuments, antiques and nature. The decree defines reserves as the plots of land, all subject to full protection and withdrawn from any that may be of economic use.

In the same year,, 6 May, Small CPC issued a decision on the inclusion of the Ilmen mineralogical nature reserve in the research network of the People's Commissariat of institutions. Scientific management works Ilmen Reserve assumed Academician. E. Fersman.

The decree appeared thanks to the perseverance Fyodorovsky Nikolai Mikhailovich - Head of the Mining Department of the Supreme Economic Council. His initiative was supported by the famous scientist Alexander E. Fersman, who offered to 1918 Ilmenite was organized in geological and mineralogical laboratory. scientists have learned, working in the Ural Radium expedition, which on the initiative of Academician VI Vernadsky, He conducted research in the Ilmen mountains in the early twentieth century. Wanting to "make our scientific Ilmenskye mountain stronghold", Fersman has prepared a number of organizational documents and put into practice by translating the Ilmen Mineralogical Reserve of in a complex - biological and mineralogical. WITH 1 December 1935 year to be not only the protection of minerals, but also the flora and fauna.

AT 1951 Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR, the Ilmen reserve was transferred to the USSR Academy of Sciences and is included in the Ural branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.

Currently Ilmen State Reserve is a conservation, research public institution with the status of the Institute as a part of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The purpose of the reserve is to preserve the activity of the natural state of the natural complex, implementation of fundamental scientific geological and mineralogical investigations, ecological and biological profile, environmental and science education of the population.

60-years
Mining of mica and colored stones Razderishinym VO, First find topaz Cossack Coated.

Vasiliy Osipovich Razderishin the rank of chief bergmeystera (Colonel) about 10 years led the search and mining operations, which continued after the 1768 g. (after his death).
Aware of breaking the light mica near Chebarkul fortress, near Lake. Argayaş. Muscovite extracted from pegmatites, and in search of its various strands were opened, including green feldspar (Amazonian stone). According to some data, Cossack rod from Chebarkul fortress in the search for mica in one of these mines found topaz ("Heavyweights"), but, according to other sources, it happened when digging trenches on the eastern shore of Lake Ilmen in the days of the Pugachev rebellion.

1770

Ilmen Mountains visited P. WITH. Pallas.

The first printed mention of the Ilmen mountains in the book of German researcher Hermann I.F.

The first scientific data on ores and minerals, Southern Urals were derived units of the Orenburg expedition 1768-72 biennium., which was headed by academicians and. AND. Lepekhin, P. WITH. Pallas (Pallas) and I. P. Falk (Falk).

1826
visits and. Menge in Ilmeny, mineral collection.

Johannes Cash, collector-mineralogist from Germany, Distinguished Professor of mineralogy for mineral knowledge and published papers, in May 1926 g. I made a trip to the Urals.

He visited the Miass Factory, gold mines and zolotopromyvalni, Ilmen Mountains and brought the first map of the location of the southern mines. Collection Ilmen minerals, Menge brought to Europe, It was investigated major mineralogists and chemists of the time. Among the samples collected by different researchers have been installed and a new world for minerals: ilmenite (initially mistaken for "tantalite"), monazite ("Tablitchatый zircon"), aeschynite ("Gadolinium"). <p”>Menge first described a new rock miaskite (Ilmenskiy "granite"). can say, that Menge - is "Ilmensky Columbus", causing the interest of Europe and Russia to the wealth of the Ilmen Mountains.
1829
Seen Ilmeny A scientific expedition. Humboldt and Mr.. pink.

In the autumn 1829 g. Professor of the University of Berlin Gustav Rose in the expedition of the German academician Alexander von Humboldt did in Ilmen mountains a two-day tour of the kopyam. One volume of this travel devoted mainly mountains Ilmen description rocks and minerals in the pits. Among the minerals Mr.. Rose described the new - cancrinite, chevkinite, pirohlor, investigated sodalite. It gave the name of the Rose "miyastsit" (miaskite) nepheline syenite Ilmeny.

 

chronology

  • 1800-1815 - Nakhodka topaz nomadic A., And Trubeevym.
  • 1826 - Visit Ilmeny Menge I., gathering a collection of minerals
  • 1826 - The first geological description of Ilmen Mountains and Menge. in "Mining Journal"
  • 1827 - Opening of a new mineral to science ilmenite (found I.Menge, certain Rose, Kupfer A.)
  • 1828 - Opening of a new mineral to science aeschynite (found I.Menge, defined Bortseliusom II)
  • 1829 - Visit Ilmeny A scientific expedition Humboldt, pink
  • 1829 - Opening of a new mineral to science monazite (found I.Menge, defined antimonnickel Ya)
  • 1828-1849- Work in ilmenite search parties Zlatoust Mining District Management
  • 1839 - Opening of a new mineral to science KANKRINITA (pink )
  • 1840 - Opening of a new mineral to science CHEVKINITA (pink)
  • 1842 - Description 20 Ilmen minerals (pink)
  • 1846 - Opening of a new mineral to science HIOLITA (German R., Auerbach AB)
  • 1847 - Opening of a new mineral to science samarskite (pink )
  • 1856 - Opening of a new mineral to science İLMENORUTİLA (NI Koksharov.)
  • 1858 - Mineralogical Mapping mines Redikortsevym I.I.
  • 1876-1877 - Compiled first petrographic map Ilmeny (Mušketov IV.)
  • 1882 - Compiled by the first description of the mine and put their numbers (Melnikov MP.)
  • 1897 - Visit Ilmeny participants of the VII International Geological Congress

 

 

1911–1917

Jobs ilmenite Radium expedition Academy of Sciences

Radium expedition of Academy of Sciences under the leadership of Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky worked in ilmenite in the 1911-1917 biennium.

1911–1917

Scientific achievements

The mines made the search for uranium, thorium and - incidentally - other minerals. During this period the mines were developed sphene and molybdenite (№ 15, u r. Çeremşankï), ilmenite (№ 16, Saveliev in ravine), malakona (№ 17, in open-end wrench), found a new field of pyrochlore (mine number 110).

In Blyumovskoy mine passed Academic course, open all conductor cross-section across the strike amazonite pegmatite, and materials E. D. Revutskaya (by Academic course) A later were taken into account. E. Fersman in creating pegmatite theory. Already, at 1912 city, AT. AND. Vernadsky filed in the Mining Department memorandum about the need to close the private mining is the whole area Ilmeny.
1912
BUT. E. Fersman was associated with ilmenite over 30 years old. You can select multiple destinations, and periods. The first - the study of mineralogy and geochemistry Ilmeny, it began with 1912 g. Radium expedition as part of the Academy of Sciences and continued until the mid 30s. The second trend - organizational. It consists of three periods: organization Ilmen Reserve (1918-1920's.); Reserve conversion to Research Center (1934-1937's.); organization mineralogical studies in the reserve (1934-1942's.)
14 May 1920 g.

Signed a decree on the formation of the state Ilmen Mineralogical Reserve.

Officially organized Ilmen Reserve 14 May 1920 of the year, when VI. Lenin signed a decree of the Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR to declare the southern Ilmeny mineralogical reserve:
"In view of the exceptional scientific value Ilmen mountains in the southern Urals in the Miass River and to escort them to the natural mineral riches Council of People's Commissars resolves: to grant the right to the People's Commissariat for Education in coordination with the Mining Council of the Supreme Economic Council to declare certain sections of the Ilmen Mountains in the southern Urals in Miass State mineralogical reserve, that is, a national treasure, intended exclusively for scientific and technical problems of the country. The use of the reserve for practical purposes is permitted only with the permission of the Council of People's Commissars "

1 December 1935 g.

The reserve has been transformed into a complex

1 December 1935 g. by the decision of the Central Executive Committee of the RSFSR and the NPF Ilmen reserve it has been transformed into a complex to learn not only the mineral wealth, as well as the flora and fauna of Ilmen Mountains and the Southern Urals.

1941–1944

Fire, which destroyed the building and all of the museum's collection
The first museum building, built in 1936 city, It was completely destroyed by fire 1 February 1941 g.

The next period in the history of the museum begins with 18 June 1944 of the year, when the official opening of the museum in a new building. Since 1941 by 1943 year raised more than 600 exhibits geological department. Consultation on the formulation of the geological department carries professor in. AND. Kryzhanovsky. WITH. L. Ushkov manufactured and assembled about 90 stuffed birds and animals, including biogroups "The attack of wolves on Roe". about a thousand exhibits were presented in the museum's departments.

1956-1964

Work in the reserve H. AT. Timofeev-


WITH 1956 by 1964 gg. He worked in the reserve Laboratory of Biophysics Institute of the Ural Branch of the USSR under the direct supervision of biology H. AT. Timofeev-.
His seminars on general problems of biology and biophysics were popular among young scientists, and among the leading specialists. Biological Station Great Miassovo in Ilmen Reserve, which hosted the Summer Workshops, It has become a real place of pilgrimage among biologists, physicists, mathematicians, chemists.

1973-1978

inventory of mines

Mineralogy laboratory team under the guidance of. BUT. Popov complete inventory of mines Reserve was carried out and laid 27 new.

1990

Opening to the public of the new building

Science museum.

14 May 1990 , the modern period began in the history of the Ilmen Reserve Museum - for visitors opened the new building of the museum area ob¬schey 4500 quarter. m. The museum works 5 exhibition halls: Ilmensky hall, Hall of Mineralogy Mining, room Systematic collection of minerals, Biological hall and temporary exhibitions. The museum has about 30000 storage units, demonstrated 9 thousand. exhibits.

chronology

  • 1911-1917 - Work in ilmenite Radium expedition of the Academy of Sciences
  • 14 May 1920 - Decree of the Council of People's Commissars on the formation of the Ilmen State Mineralogical Reserve
  • 20 June 1924- Resolution of the RSFSR SNK for the inclusion of the reserve of the People's Commissariat, funding allocation. He appointed Director Rudenko DI.
  • 1925 - Start of a scientific nature reserve activities: Tyulina LN, Snigirevskaya SI, Kazakov AA, Titov A., Smirnov NN.
  • 1926 - Carry out forest management work, marked the boundaries of the reserve
  • 1927 - the first book about the reserve Smirnova NN. "State Ilmen mineralogical nature reserve"
  • 1933 - The reserve is transferred to the Ural Branch of the Academy of Sciences
  • 1934 - carried out the first scientific conference of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR on the geochemistry of magmas
  • 1 December 1935 - Resolution of the Central Executive Committee and SNK RSFSR reserve transformed into a complex
  • 1936 - published the first scientific book "Proceedings of the Ilmen Reserve"
  • 1936 - built the first museum building
  • 1936 - Spend the first account of ungulates- white trail
  • 1937 - There was a tour Ilmenskaya XVII International Geological Congress
  • 1938-1939 - An inventory of the mine reserve Berezin BA, TI Ustinova.
  • 1939 - A book Zavaritskii AN. "Geological and petrographic essay Ilmen reserve and its mines", published mines map, TI Ustinova. finished "Description Mine Southern Ilmen Reserve", Volzhenkov AI. It was petrographic map Ilmeny
  • 16 May 1940 - Reserve named after VI Lenin
  • 1941-1943 - The Reserve evacuated staff of the Institute of Geological Sciences of the USSR, in t.ch.akademik Zavaritskii AN.
  • 1943 - Reserve started working on the program "Chronicle of Nature"
  • 1949- Was published scientific collection "Ilmen Reserve Minerals"
  • 1956-1964 - The reserve has worked Institute of Biology Department of the USSR under the direction of UFAN d.b.n. Timofeev-NV.
  • 1959 - is renewed edition of the scientific publication "Proceedings of the Ilmen Reserve"
  • 1964 - Completed a detailed geological survey of the southern and central part of the reserve
  • 1965 - Opening of a new mineral to science FERGUSONITE-beta-(IS) (Makarochkin BA)
  • 1971 - The reserve is allocated as an independent research institution of the Ural Scientific Center of the USSR Academy of Sciences
  • 1973 - An inventory of mines Reserve under the leadership of VA Popov.
  • 1980 - Opening of a new mineral to science USHKOVITA (Chesnokov BV)
  • 1984 - Opening of a new mineral to science SVYAZHINITA (Chesnokov BV)
  • 1986 - Opening of a new mineral to science MAKAROCHKINITA (Polyakov VO)
  • 1988 - On the basis of the reserve organized the Institute of Mineralogy
  • 1986 - Opening of a new mineral to science KALUGINITA (Chesnokov BV)
  • 1986- Opening of a new mineral to science MATVEEVITA (Chesnokov BV)
  • 1990 - Open to visitors Natural Science Museum (The total area of ​​the museum 4500 m. in the museum about 30000 storage units, demonstrated 9 thousand exhibits, works 7 exhibition halls)
  • 1993 - Opening of a new mineral to science FTORORIHTERITA (Bazhenov AG)
  • 1998 - Opening of a new mineral to science FTOROMAGNEZIOARFEDSONITA (Bazhenov AG)
  • 1999 - Opening of a new mineral to science KALİYFERRİSADAGAİTA (Bazhenov AG)
  • 2000 - Opening of a new mineral to science POLYAKOVITA (Popov VA)
  • 2000 - Compiled by mineralogical inventory, which contains 268 mineral species and 94 species (Nikandrov SN, Kobyashev YU.S., Valyzer PM)
  • 2000 - Compiled geological map of the Ilmen Reserve PARTICULAR VI.

2008
2008_B_Yshkul

Ilmen Mountains included in the preliminary list of UNESCO World Monuments

The main value and the main protected object Ilmen Reserve are Ilmen Mountains, which are a unique geological object. Outstanding national and global value of the reserve and its contribution to the global mineralogical science confirmed the inclusion in 2008 g. in the preliminary list of monuments of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage.

2019

Scientific achievements

The long history of the study of the reserve developed over 400 mines, definitely: 70 rocks, 315 mineral species, first discovered 17 new minerals. As a result of years of research of natural systems Ilmen Reserve, Southern Urals and Russia revealed about 600 new species plants and animals, including the reserve - more 200, Urals and Russia - about 400.

chronology

  • 2005 - Opening of two new minerals MAKARACHKINIT and FERRIVINCHIT (A.G. Bazhenov )
  • 2006 - yield mineralogical almanac Mineralogy pegmatite Ilmeny (VA. priest's, V.I. Popova)
  • 2006 - The collection of scientific papers Reserve "Geology and mineralogy Ilmenogorsky complex: The situation and problems "
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